Handbook of Reading Research

By P. David Pearson | Go to book overview

24
MANAGING INSTRUCTION
Wayne Otto, Anne Wolf, and
Roger G. Eldridge

Reading instruction involves not only selecting and presenting a curriculum to students, but also structuring a context in which teaching and learning can occur. Setting up and maintaining a total environment—which includes curricular, organizational, and instructional aspects—either for one student or for many is managing instruction. Approaches to the topic of managing instruction are likely to stress either pragmatic or philosophical concerns. Pragmatic concerns are often directed toward finding an optimal size for instructional groups. While such a focus for an individual study may seem mundane or even simplistic, the goal—to discover cost-effective environments for teaching and learning—has both practical and theoretical significance. Philosophical concerns address such questions as whether the perceived needs of individuals or the structure of subject matter ought to be the basis for planning and for managing instruction. Questions like these are raised frequently when the issues related to the return-to-basics movement or the debate about setting minimum competencies are considered. But whatever the emphasis, the underlying quest in the literature on managing instruction is to give proper consideration to value systems, type and structure of content, the psychology of individual differences, and the structures and processes of effective schooling in order to enhance the learning of individual students. Americans continue to “value the individual person more than all else” (Sartain, 1968, p. 197), and this overriding fact sets the tone for virtually all of the work that relates to managing instruction.

Our purpose in this chapter is threefold. First, we provide a context and a perspective for viewing the topic of managing instruction. The historical overview that is briefly developed in the section that follows provides a context for considering the topic. Second, we offer a selective examination of the literature related to the management of instruction in reading. The review is necessarily selective because the literature is vast, including not only reports of empiricalexperimental studies and descriptions of promising and exemplary programs,

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Handbook of Reading Research
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page *
  • Contents v
  • Contributors ix
  • Foreword xix
  • Preface xxi
  • Part One - Methodological Issues 1
  • 1 - The History of Reading Research 3
  • Notes *
  • References *
  • 2 - Current Traditions of Reading Research 39
  • References *
  • 3 - Design and Analysis of Experiments 63
  • References *
  • 4 - Ethnographic Approaches to Reading Research 91
  • References *
  • 5 - Examples from Word Recognition 111
  • Notes *
  • References *
  • 6 - Assessment in Reading 147
  • References *
  • Part Two - Basic Processes: the State of the Art 183
  • 7 - Models of the Reading Process 185
  • Notes *
  • References *
  • 8 - Word Recognition 225
  • References *
  • 9 - A Schema-Theoretic View of Basic Processes in Reading Comprehension 255
  • References *
  • 10 - Listening and Reading 293
  • References *
  • 11 - The Structure of Text 319
  • References *
  • 12 - Metacognitive Skills and Reading 353
  • References *
  • 13 - Directions in the Sociolinguistic Study of Reading 395
  • References *
  • 14 - Social and Motivational Influences on Reading 423
  • Notes 443
  • References *
  • 15 - Understanding Figurative Language 453
  • References *
  • 16 - Individual Differences and Underlying Cognitive Processes in Reading 471
  • Notes *
  • References *
  • Part Three - Instructional Practices: the State of the Art 503
  • 17 - Early Reading from a Developmental Perspective 505
  • Notes *
  • References *
  • 18 - From Debate to Reformation 545
  • Notes 575
  • References *
  • 19 - Word Identification 583
  • References *
  • 20 - Research on Teaching Reading Comprehension 609
  • References *
  • 21 - Studying 657
  • References *
  • 22 - Readability 681
  • References *
  • 23 - Classroom Instruction in Reading 745
  • Notes *
  • References *
  • 24 - Managing Instruction 799
  • References *
  • 25 - Oral Reading 829
  • References *
  • Author Index 865
  • Subject Index 891
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