I AM INDEBTED to a great many institutions and individuals for providing their insights and assistance with this book, though, of course, all of the views expressed herein are my own. The American Council of Teachers of Russian furnished a United States Information Agency grant that enabled me to conduct research in Moscow during the 1994-95 academic year, and I am deeply obliged to its very helpful staff. Thanks also to the University of Washington Graduate School and Department of History, The Henry M. Jackson School of International Studies, and Phi Alpha Theta Historical Honors Society for supplying the additional funding needed to support my work in the Russian State Archives.
While in Moscow I received repeated assistance from the staff and directors of the Institute of the World Economy and International Relations (IMEMo) and the Institute of International Economic and Political Studies (formerly the Institute of the Economics of the World Socialist System), as well as the Center for the Preservation of Contemporary Documentation. I would especially like to recognize IMEMo director Nodari Simonia, Natalia Stepanovna, Igor Zevelev, Vladimir Khoros, Svetlana Glinkina, Nikolai Bukharin, I. I. Orlik, A. A. Iskenderov, and Sergei Mironov for their insightful suggestions on the direction of my research. I am also grateful to the many former Soviet officials who agreed to be interviewed for this study, especially Army General A. I. Gribkov, Aleksandr Yakovlev, Georgii Shakhnazarov, Nikolai Kulikov, Sergei Grigoriev, Valerii Musatov, and I. N. Kuz'min. Their personal observations and experiences served to breathe life into many of the issues and concerns that lay buried in the dark recesses of Moscow's communist bureaucracy.
During the 1999-2000 academic year I had the remarkable opportunity of working as a research scholar at the Woodrow Wilson Center's Kennan Institute for Advanced Russian Studies. I owe a great deal to the incredible staff of the Wilson Center, the Kennan Institute, and the Center's Cold War International History Project, and I thank their directors, Lee Hamilton, Blair Ruble, and Christian Ostermann respectively, for the hospitality and support that I received during my stay. While at the Kennan Institute I had the opportunity to present my findings to an extraordinarily informed and experienced audience of scholars, federal intelligence analysts, and former congressional staffers. Many of these individuals had direct experience in the shaping of an American response to