The Rise and Fall of the Brezhnev Doctrine in Soviet Foreign Policy

By Matthew J. Ouimet | Go to book overview

4

Socialist Poland—
Asset or Liability?

Listen: take steps this very hour that Russia
Be fenced by barriers from Lithuania;
That not a single soul pass o'er the border,
That not a hare run o'er to us from Poland,
Nor crow fly here from Cracow.
—Alexander Pushkin, Boris Godunov

A DECADE AFTER THE INVASION OF CZECHOSlOVAKIA, the Soviets were still working to "normalize" communist rule in Eastern Europe. As détente took a turn for the worse, Moscow asserted bloc cohesion as increasingly vital in managing the decline of commercial relations with the West. But the cause of bloc cohesion continued to face challenges sharply at variance with Moscow's normalization goals. Nowhere was this more visible than in Poland. Nearly a decade of mismanaged growth policies, ballooning national debt, and rising consumer expectations had brought the Polish nation to the point of a popular revolution by 1979. Its Polish United Workers Party (PZPR), under First Secretary Edward Gierek since 1970, had sought to base its credibility on comparatively liberal economic and social policies aimed at winning popular support. However, widespread corruption and misuse of international investments gradually undermined Gierek's efforts, giving rise instead to a nationwide surge of indignant anticommunism. Poles turned from officialdom in all its manifestations and began to create a semilegal civil society, free from Party censors or state controls.

A number of momentous events served to galvanize this popular rejection of state authority. The 1978 election of the Polish Karol Cardinal Wojtyla to the papacy fired the furnace of national pride in Poland more than any event since the capture of Kiev in 1920. As the new pontiff undertook a policy of extensive engagement in Eastern Europe, Poles responded with a renaissance of Catholic activism that quickly spilled over into surrounding states, including the Soviet Union. Meanwhile, nationalists successfully rallied popular emotion around the memory of Polish martyrs executed by the Soviets in World War II. Unforgotten and unforgiven, this crime of a bygone era still loomed large in the public imagination, explicitly discrediting Soviet power and its allies in the Polish government.

-99-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Rise and Fall of the Brezhnev Doctrine in Soviet Foreign Policy
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • The Rise and Fall of the Brezhnev Doctrine in Soviet Foreign Policy *
  • Contents *
  • Acknowledgments *
  • Abbreviations *
  • Introduction 1
  • 1 - Evolutionary Counterrevolution 9
  • 2 - "Normalization" and Orthodoxy 39
  • 3 - Socialist Internationalism and National Interest 65
  • 4 - Socialist Poland— Asset or Liability? 99
  • 5 - Military Assistance to Poland in 1980? 131
  • 6 - The Collapse of Socialist Internationalism 171
  • 7 - Staring into the Abyss 205
  • Conclusion 243
  • Notes 257
  • Index 299
  • The New Cold War History *
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 309

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.