APRF: Arkhiv Presidenta Rossiskoi Federatsii (Archives of the President of the Russian
Federation, known as the Presidential Archive, Moscow)
d.: delo (file or dossier)
f.: fond (fund, the most comprehensive organizational grouping within an archival
MEIMO: Mirovaia Ekonomika i Mezhdunarodnye Otnoshenii (World Economy and
o.: opis' (inventory)
pac.: paczka (packet)
PAP: Polska Agencja Prasowa (Polish Press Agency)
per.: perechen' (list)
SAMPO: Siftung Archiv der Massenorganisationen und Parteien der ehemaligen DDR
im Bundesarchiv (Foundation "Archive of the Mass Organizations and Parties of
the Former GDR" in the German Federal Archive, Potsdam)
TsKhSD: Tsentr Khraneniia Sovremennoi Dokumentatsii (Center for the Preservation of
Contemporary Documentation, the former CPSU Party Archives, Moscow)
The single, yet unforgettable, exception was Romania, where a brutal civil war
raged for days before security forces loyal to Nicolae Ceausescu were finally
See especially Mark Kramer, "Beyond the Brezhnev Doctrine," International
Security 14, no. 3 (Winter 1989-90); Charles Gati, The Bloc That Failed: Soviet-
East European Relations in Transition (London: I. B. Touris, 1990); Karen Dawisha, Eastern Europe, Gorbachev, and Reform: The Great Challenge, 2d ed. (Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 1990); William G. Hyland, The Cold War Is Over (New
York: Times Books, 1990); Jerry F. Hough, "Gorbachev's Politics," Foreign Affairs 68,
no. 5 (Winter 1989-90); Sidney Blumenthal, Pledging Alliance: The Last Campaign
of the Cold War (New York: HarperCollins, 1990); Ralf Dahrendorf, Reflections on
the Revolution in Europe (New York: Times Books/Random House, 1990); Jeane J.
Kirkpatrick, The Withering Away of the Totalitarian States . . . and Other Surprises
(Washington, D. C.: American Enterprise Institute, 1990); Michael Howard,
"The Springtime of Nations," Foreign Affairs 69, no. 1 (Winter 1990); William H.
MacNeill, "Winds of Change," Foreign Affairs 69, no. 4 (Fall 1990); Robert G.
Kaiser, "Gorbachev: Triumph and Failure," Foreign Affairs 70, no. 2 (Spring 1991);
Richard Perle, "Military Power and the Passing Cold War," in After the Cold War:
Questioning the Morality of Nuclear Deterrence, ed. Charles W. Kegley Jr. and
Kenneth L. Scwab (Boulder: Westview, 1991); and Richard Pipes, "Gorbachev's
Russia: Breakdown or Crackdown," Commentary 89, no. 3 (March 1990).
See Daniel Deudney and G. John Ikenberry, "The International Sources of Soviet
Change," International Security 16, no. 3 (Winter 1991), and Gati, The Bloc That Failed.
See Hough, "Gorbachev's Politics"; Valerie Bunce, "The Empire Strikes Back: The
Evolution of the Eastern Bloc from a Soviet Asset to a Soviet Liability," International
Organization 39, no. 1 (Winter 1985); Paul Marer, "Has Eastern Europe Become a
Liability to the Soviet Union: (III) The Economic Aspect," in The International
Politics of Eastern Europe, ed. Charles Gati (New York: Praeger, 1976); and Peter