# Understanding Childhood Obesity

By J. Clinton Smith | Go to book overview

Notes
1
In polycystic ovary disease, the ovary produces excessive quantities of the male hormone testosterone. Affected girls and women may have little or no menses, and may develop male-like features such as facial hair and coarse skin. About half become obese.
2
Some readers may not be familiar with the metric units “kilogram” and “centimeters” used to calculate body mass index. A kilogram is equivalent to 2.2 pounds, and a pound is equivalent to approximately 0.45 kilograms. A centimeter is equivalent to 0.39 inches, and an inch is equivalent to 2.54 centimeters.
3
Since body mass index increases as a child grows, it is somewhat more reliable as a measure when applied to adults, who have reached their maximum height. However, body mass index continues to be the measure of overweight used most often in children as well as adults.
4
The method of calculating percent body fat, given a person's body density, is as follows: we know that the density of body fat is about 0.900 gm/ml, and that the density of all other nonfat body tissues (lean body mass) is about 1.100 gm/ml. Any mixture of fat and lean tissues will result in an average body density between 0.90 gm/ml (for 100 percent fat) and 1.10 gm/ml (for 0 percent fat). Although body densities vary a little with age, sex, and race, we can say that an individual with 40 percent body fat would have an average body density of (40 percent x 0.9)+(60 percent x 1.1)=0.36+0.66=1.02 gm/ml. Another person with 10 percent body fat would have an average body density of (10 percent x 0.9)+(90 percent x 1.1)=0.09+0.99=1.08 gm/ml. Based on body densities determined experimentally by many underwater measurements on many people, we can calculate, with the help of a mathematical formula, an individual's percent body fat with an accuracy of about ± 1 percent. And knowing the percent body fat makes it possible to calculate total body fat and fat-free mass.

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Understanding Childhood Obesity

• Title Page iii
• Contents v
• Acknowledgments vii
• Introduction ix
• Understanding Childhood Obesity 1
• 1. - Why is Obesity an Important Health Problem in America? 3
• 2. - Who is Obese, and How Do We Know? 17
• 3. - How Our Bodies Obtain Energy 33
• 4. - Obesity: a Disorder of Energy 50
• 5. - Some Factors That May Determine Obesity 64
• 6. - What Can Be Done to Prevent Childhood Obesity? 81
• 7. - If Prevention Doesn't Work 99
• 8. - The Great Beyond: New Frontiers in the Treatment of Obesity 122
• Notes 131
• Glossary 135
• References 140
• Index 149
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