empowering. Thus, while conceptual clarity demands some distinction between process and outcome, and attempts to evaluate outcomes are important, the chapters in Rethinking Empowerment suggest that we need to see empowerment not simply as measurable or quantifiable. Indeed, both the process and supposed outcomes of empowerment are perhaps best seen as untidy and unpredictable rather than linear, inevitable and easily understood.
In conclusion, we believe these issues provide lenses for rethinking the concept and practice of empowerment. They offer a way to make the term and the practice of empowerment strategies for women more rigorous, effective and perhaps complex. Women's groups, movements and feminist scholars would then be able to reflect upon the interconnectedness that the term requires if it is to be more than a 'motherhood' term. Rethinking Empowerment is thus a critique of the existing debates on empowerment as well as a contribution to the debates and practice on women's strategizing for empowerment. We hope it will push the analysis of women's empowerment in ways that both strengthen the concept and enhance attempts to operationalize women's empowerment in an increasingly complex, global/local world.
Afshar, Haleh (ed.) (1998) Women and empowerment: Illustrations from the Third World, New York: St Martin's Press.
Agnihotri, I. and V. Mazumdar (1995) 'Changing terms of political discourse: Women's movement in India, 1970s–1990s', Economic and Political Weekly XXX (29): 1869–78.
Allen, J. (1990) 'Does feminism need a theory of the state?', in S. Watson (ed.) Playing the State, London: Verso.
Amin, Samir (1974) Accumulation on a World Scale, trans. Brian Pearce, New York: Monthly Review Press.
Batliwala, Srilatha (1994) 'The meaning of women's empowerment: New concepts from action', in G. Sen, A. Germain and L.C. Chen (eds) Population Policies Reconsidered: Health, Empowerment and Rights, Boston: Harvard University Press, pp. 127–38.
Butalia, U. and T. Sarkar (eds) (1996) Women and Right-wing Movements: Indian Experiences, London: Zed Books.
Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) (1999) Policy on Gender Equality, Ottawa: CIDA.
Chambers, R. (1997) Whose Reality Counts? Putting the First Last, London: Intermediate Technology Publications.
Charlton, S.E., J. Everett and K. Staudt (1989) Women, the State and Development, Albany, NY: SUNY/Albany Press.
Collins, Patricia Hill (1991) Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness, and the Politics of Empowerment, New York: Routledge.
Cockburn, C. (1999) The Space between Us: Negotiating Gender and National Identities in Conflict, London: Zed Press.
Cooper, F. and R. Packard (eds) (1997) International Development and the Social Sciences, Berkeley: University of California Press.
Craig, C. and M. Mayo (eds) (1995) Community Empowerment, London: Zed Press.