Rethinking Empowerment: Gender and Development in a Global/Local World

By Jane L. Parpart; Shirin M. Rai et al. | Go to book overview

Women's rights, CEDAW and human rights protective/corrective categories of rights before embarking upon the 'equality' and non-discrimination path. A move toward substantive as opposed to mere formal equality for all may be possible if we apply the Islamic paradigm of equality of human dignity and worth, and require 'those in authority' (i.e. men and the state) to accept responsibility for fulfilling the material needs of women, children and other disadvantaged sections of society in their charge and for providing them with access and control over resources.


Notes
1
For a detailed discussion of how the human rights of women have been split off from the mainstream of the international human rights movement, see Hosken 1981.
2
In June 1993, the World Human Rights Conference in Vienna emphasized the need for 'the adoption of new procedures to strengthen implementation of the commitment to women's equality and the human rights of women'. It called upon the CSW and CEDAW to examine the possibility of introducing the right of petition through the preparation of an optional protocol to the Women's Convention. Since January 1994, efforts have been underway toward the achievement of this goal, including discussions on a draft optional protocol, but these have not yet reached fruition. See A. Byrnes, 'Highlights in the Development of an Optional Protocol to the Women's Convention and Selected Background Materials', circulated at a consultation meeting organized by the International Women's Rights Action Watch (IWRAW) in New York in January 1998.
3
An optional protocol adopted recently has enabled the right of individual petition to women.
4
In this regard, the International Women's Rights Action Watch (IWRAW), based at the University of Minnesota, regularly monitors the implementation of CEDAW through annual parallel meetings with CEDAW. IWRAW has brought together thousands of women from around the world to participate in these meetings, as well as for lobbying members of CEDAW.
5
The identifying criteria for Muslim countries are many and varied. One criterion is to consider those countries where Muslims constitute over 70 per cent of the total population as Muslim countries. Weeks (1984: 882–911) uses member states of the Organization of Islamic Countries (OIC) as the determining criteria for identifying states with large numbers of Muslim populations.
6
Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Benin, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Comoros, Egypt, Gabon, Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Indonesia, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Morocco, Mozambique, Nigeria, Pakistan, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Suriname, Tajikistan, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Uzbekistan and Yemen. Muslim countries that have so far refrained from signature/ratification of the Women's Convention include Bahrain, Brunei, Djibouti, Mauritania, Niger, Oman, Qatar, Iran, Kazakhstan, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria and the United Arab Emirates. Updated information on signatures, ratifications and accessions is available on the Internet. A useful website is http://gopher.un.org:70/00/ga/cedaw/RATIFICA.
7
Cf. article 16(1) of the UDHR, which provides: 'Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and found a family'. Article 16 of the Women's Convention provides: 'States Parties shall take appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against women in all matters relating to marriage and family relations and in particular shall ensure, on a basis of equality of men and women: a) the same rights to enter into marriage.'

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Rethinking Empowerment: Gender and Development in a Global/Local World
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Routledge/Warwick Studies in Globalisation ii
  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Contributors xi
  • Acknowledgements xv
  • Abbreviations xvii
  • Part I - Theory and Praxis 1
  • 1 - An Introduction 3
  • References 18
  • 2 - Education as a Means for Empowering Women 22
  • References 36
  • Part II - Women's Empowerment in a Global World 39
  • 3 - The Janus Effect 41
  • Notes 57
  • References 58
  • 4 - Toward Empowerment 61
  • Notes 75
  • References 76
  • 5 - Rethinking Technoagency 79
  • References 92
  • Part III - The Nation State, Politics and Women's Empowerment 95
  • 6 - Beyond Official Empowerment Discourse 97
  • References 110
  • 7 - Women's Mobilization in Chile and Turkey 112
  • Notes 127
  • References 129
  • 8 - The Quota Debate in India 133
  • References 145
  • 9 - The Case for Female Peasants in India 147
  • Notes 158
  • References 159
  • Part IV - The Local/Global, Development and Women's Empowerment 163
  • 10 - The Pra Approach 165
  • References 178
  • 11 - Examples from Kenya and Cameroon 182
  • References 197
  • 12 - Depoliticizing Empowerment in a Tanzanian Family Planning Project 199
  • Notes 213
  • References 215
  • 13 - Informal Politics, Grassroots Ngos and Women's Empowerment in the Slums of Bombay 218
  • Notes 232
  • References 234
  • Part V - Conclusion 237
  • 14 - Concluding Thoughts on (em)powerment, Gender and Development 239
  • Index 245
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