Cf. discussion in the Quran, verse 4:34, stating that men are providers and maintainers of women since they are obligated to provide for them out of their earnings.
Cf. article 16(2) of the UDHR which provides: 'Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses'. Article 16(b) of the Women's Convention makes a similar statement: 'The same right freely to choose a spouse and to enter into marriage only with their free and full consent.'
This Symposium was organized in accordance with Resolution 10/7-C (IS), adopted by the Seventh Islamic Summit Conference. Delegates from thirty-four Islamic countries participated in the deliberations. Three documents were submitted to the Seminar: Recommendations of the Seminar to the Twenty-third Islamic Conference of Foreign Ministers; Principles Presented as Guidelines to the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing; and the Tehran Declaration on the Role of Women in the Development of Islamic Society.
Paragraph 1.15 provides for 'provision of necessary financial and social support and protection and empowerment of women heads of household'.
A person with the capacity to engage in independent legal reasoning. Paragraph 1.3 of the Tehran Declaration calls this process Ijtihad.
Thirty-five high-level delegations from Muslim countries participated, including representatives from Pakistan, Libya, Chad, Malaysia, Oman, Azerbaijan, Morocco, Syria, Yemen, Albania, Algeria, Kyrgyzstan, Iraq, Bangladesh, Egypt, Palestine, Jordan, Senegal, Iran, Indonesia, Sudan, Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, Turkey and a representative of the International Parliamentary Union.
Cf. Tabandeh's view that women are not allowed in public life. Also note the Hadith where it is stated that 'Those who entrust their affairs to a woman will never know prosperity.'
See Preamble of the Islamabad Declaration, which states: 'Recognising that woman, as enshrined in the Quran and Sunnah, is the centre of the family which is the basic unit of society and hence the cornerstone of the edifice of a stable, peaceful and prosperous polity.' UN human rights instruments articulate similar formulations. See, for example, article 23 of the ICCPR and article 10 of the ICESCR.
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Boulware-Miller, K. (1985) 'Female circumcision: Challenges to the practice, as a human rights violation', Harvard Women's Law Journal 8: 155.
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