The Taproot and Its Blight
The history of the southern house divided defies simple summary. The story's revelations transcend the question of why the Confederacy lost the Civil War, also throwing light on the nature of Abraham Lincoln, American racism, paternalism, slavery, emancipation, bureaucracy, whites' democratic procedures, and blacks' nonviolent resistance. So too, although Southerners' war on Southerners is the critical missing piece in the why-the-Confederacy-lost puzzle, no one piece provides the solution. Without Lincoln's political finesse, for example, fugitive slaves and border whites might not have so profoundly compromised Confederate state whites. So too, without Grant's and other Union generals' military skill, anti-Confederate Southerners' contributions to Union power might never have been killing. There is nothing impersonally deterministic about this story; at many points, men's personal errors could have blunted the power of the Slave South's crippling divisions.
Furthermore, southern anti-Confederates' aid to the Union only crippled disastrously because free labor states started out with greater re