Rose, & Leigh, 1993). How do recurrent characters that appear in a series of ads affect audience impressions? Our study examined people's reactions to single ads, not ad campaigns or vignette advertising. Different ad forms employ characters in different ways that may subtly alter the impression formation process (Stern, 1994). How do antiheroes, villains, and negative role models function in terms of identification? Dissuasion is a common goal of social marketing where the aim is to discourage certain consumer behaviors. Finally, perhaps the most important question of all: Which sorts of identifications have the greatest motivational force? This research lays the groundwork to encourage exploration of these important issues.