A Meta-Analytic Assessment
Erin Sahktein and Mike Allen
Communication is extremely important in the formation of one's sense of self. Our interactions with others and our exposure to culture and media inform and influence how we see ourselves. Nevertheless, we do not all have the same experience with the world and the people with whom we interact. Thus, our sense of self develops differently.
A prevalent and controversial topic of study today is how sense of self, or self-esteem, differs for males and females. How these differences are constructed and to what degree these differences exist are central questions that merit inquiry. The current research examining different levels of self-esteem has produced inconsistent results. This meta-analysis was conducted to aggregate the empirical outcomes of investigations examining sex differences in self-esteem.
Several definitions for self-esteem have been posited in the literature, but all have similar characteristics. Rosenberg (1972) defined self-esteem as a feeling of self-worth and fundamental respect for oneself. He characterized low self-esteem as a lack of respect for oneself and feelings of unworthiness, inadequacies, and deficiencies. Coopersmith (1967) referred to self-esteem as