results across studies. Additionally, the choice of measure may cause males or females to rate themselves higher or lower, depending on the scale's assessment (i.e., cognitive, social, or physical appearance).
These results do not provide answers or overwhelming support for future research on general sex differences; however, scholarship that leads to an increased understanding of how sex differences in cognitive, social, and physical self-esteem specifically form is in order. Although overall the data reported do not point to large differences between male and female self-esteem levels, experientially these differences can have important implications for the mental and physical health of individuals. Scholars in this discipline should give their increased attention to how communication is vital to the differentiated self-evaluation processes of males and females. Communication, in its varied forms, is how we come to know ourselves as well as others. Through processes of communication individuals (re)construct their self esteem through everyday talk and in their exposure to media. As Communication scholars we should be asking more questions concerning the role of communication in the process of constructing sex differences in specific self-evaluations (i.e., cognitively, socially, and physically). In the words of Sadker and Sadker (1994), “We believe that understanding these crucial issues will enable people to work for change” (p. xi).