Women and the Family in Chinese History

By Patricia Buckley Ebrey | Go to book overview

Notes

1Women, money, and class: Sima Guang and Song Neo-Confucian views on women
1
That conditions were at their worst in the Qing dynasty was already recognized in the early twentieth century (Lu Hsun 1957:2.19–20). For more recent studies, see Elvin 1984 and Mann 1987.
2
Chen Dongyuan 1928:139.
3
Zhu Ruixi 1986:139. Even Bettine Birge, who tries to put Zhu Xi's views on women into the most positive possible light, states that the Cheng-Zhu school elevated the prohibition against remarriage of widows to a new importance (Birge 1989:338).
4
Lin Yutang 1939:165; Levy 1967:44. Lin cites no sources. Levy cites two sources: Jia Shen 1925:8b., which in turn cites the oral tradition of the elders of Amoy; and Yao Lingxi 1936:351, which cites Lüyun xuan biji, a source I have not been able to identify by author or century, or locate in any catalog or library.
5
Croll 1980:14. Cf. the more qualified statements in Gates 1989, esp. 821–23.
6
Yao 1983:91.
7
Li 1971:364.
8
Other historians have also noted weaknesses in the charges against Neo-Confucianism. See T'ien Ju-k'ang 1988:1.
9
On the continuities with regard to family ethics from Han Confucianism to Song Neo-Confucianism, see Kwang-Ching Liu 1990b.
10
For a brief discussion of the evidence on footbinding, see Ebrey 1990b [now see also Ebrey 1993:37–43].
11
That the context of Cheng Yi's statement has been inadequately understood is made evident by the fact that even the widow of his nephew (Cheng Hao's son) remarried, leaving a child behind. Cheng Yi did not approve the remarriage, but he let her come to see her child and maintained contact with her father and new husband (ECJ waishu 11.413).
12
See Ebrey 1991c [reproduced here as Chapter 3 ].
13
SS 298.9906. Sima Dan's wife may well have been sympathetic. Sima Guang records her friendship with the girl her older brother's wife brought with her as a maid/concubine when she married. This girl had been sold by her stepmother when she was 7 without her father's knowledge. SMCJJ 72.883–84.
14
SSWJL 11.121.
15
LQJ 36.41b. For a case in which the daughter of a magistrate ended up as a maid rather than a concubine, see DXBL 12.90.
16
QSGY 3.35–38 (quote p. 38).
17
OYXQJ 31.217–19.
18
LQJ 39.54b–57a.

-220-

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