Pivotal Deterrence: Third-Party Statecraft and the Pursuit of Peace

By Timothy W. Crawford | Go to book overview

Notes

INTRODUCTION
1.
See Aesop's fable, “The Bat, the Birds, and the Beasts.”
2.
See Paul Kennedy, “In the Shadow of the Great War,” New York Review of Books, 12 Au- gust 1999, 38.
3.
For a revealing insider account of U.S. efforts in the 1999 Kargil war, see Bruce Reidel, “American Diplomacy and the 1999 Kargil Summit at Blair House,” Policy Paper Series 2002 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Center for the Advanced Study of India, 2002). Also see Andrew C. Winner and Toshi Yoshihara, “India and Pakistan at the Edge,” Survival 44 (autumn 2002): 69-86.
4.
On China-Taiwan, Greece-Turkey, and Serbia-Kosovo, see Chapter 7 below. On Serbia- Montenegro, see Ivo Daalder, “Another Balkan War,” Washington Post, 22 August 2000.
5.
On Ethiopia-Eritrea, see Jane Perlez, “U.S. Did Little to Deter Buildup as Ethiopia and Eritrea Prepared for War,” New York Times, 22 May 2000. On Spain-Morocco, see “Morocco, Spain Decide to Leave Islet Alone,” San Francisco Chronicle, 23 July 2002. On Russia-Georgia, see Steven Lee Myers, “Georgia Hearing Footsteps from Russia's War in Chechnya,” New York Times, 15 August 2002.
6.
Carlotta Gall, “Warring Afghan Factions Fire on Green Berets, but They Pay a Price,” New York Times, 2 December 2002.
7.
Alan Kuperman coined the phrase “muscular mediation” to describe the tactics of a third party that “simply proposes his own solution and threatens to use his considerable re- sources against whichever side rejects the agreement.” “Rambouillet Requiem: Why the Talks Failed,” Wall Street Journal, 4 March 1999.
8.
See Saadia Touval and I. William Zartman, eds., International Mediation in Theory and Practice (Boulder: Westview, 1985), 7; Saadia Touval, “Biased Intermediaries: Theoretical and Historical Considerations,” Jerusalem Journal of International Relations 1 (fall 1975), 51-52. For recent work in this vein, see Robert Rauchhaus, “Third Party Intervention in Militarized Dis- putes: Primum Non Nocere,” (Ph.D. diss., University of California Berkeley, 2000), chap. 3; James A. Wall, John B. Stark, and Rhetta L. Standifer, “Mediation: A Current Review and Theory Development,” Journal of Conflict Resolution 45 (June 2001): 370-91; Jacob Bercovitch, “Meditation in International Conflict: An Overview of Theory, a Review of Practice,” in I. William Zartman and J. Lewis Rasmussen, eds., Peacemaking in International Conflict: Methods and Techniques (Washington D.C.: U.S. Institute of Peace, 1997), 127-8; and Thomas Princen, Intermediaries in International Conflict (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992).
9.
Lawrence Freedman, “Strategic Studies and the Problem of Power,” in Freedman, Paul

-221-

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