Conceptual Structure and Social Change: The Ideological Architecture of Democratization

By Sara Schatz; Javier Jesús Gutiérrez-Rexach | Go to book overview

NOTES
1.
In possible-worlds semantics, a proposition is a set of possible worlds—those in which the proposition is true. Thus, a belief state is a set of sets of possible worlds. Alternatively, one can adopt a syntactic view and conceive of belief states as sets of sentences.
2.
We are identifying a model of a cognitive system with a mathematical dynamical system instantiated by it (Giunti 1997). The dynamic system is a proper model of the cognitive system if it captures or describes one or more of its aspects. What we are claiming here is that our proposed model obviously captures more than one aspect and, critically, it captures the internal and external dynamic dimension of cognitive ideological systems. There are different models currently used in cognitive science to simulate certain aspects of the behavior of cognitive systems: symbolic processing models, and neural networks models. The cognitive aspect of a cognitive system that a simulation model describes is the process or behavioral pattern associated with the completion of a task or environmental change. For example, if the behavior consists in the solution of a logical problem, the cognitive model will simulate the subject's problem-solving processes (Newell and Simon 1972). If the behavior to be modeled is a linguistic acquisition process, for example how a child acquires the English past-tense system, the cognitive model will attempt to simulate this process. The simulation model can be symbolic or connectionistic (Rumelhart and McClelland 1986).
3.
This does not mean that a causal component cannot be added to the determination of events and ideological changes. On causation in general, see Lewis (1973a, 1973b).
4.
The emergence of the group of theories covered under the “Optimality Theory” umbrella can be viewed as a compromise between higher level symbolic theories of linguistic and cognitive processes and lower level neural connectionistic networks (Prince and Smolensky 1997).
5.
Largely, our model explores phases one and two (the “fear phase” and the “recognition phase”) of the mass conceptual changes that accompany democratization. The reason for this is because our focus in on democratization processes, rather than on those cognitive processes associated with the consolidation of electoral democracy (i.e., the “internal comparison phase”). For the initiation of such treatment of the “internal comparison” phase, see Diamond (1999), Evans and Whitefield (1995).

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Conceptual Structure and Social Change: The Ideological Architecture of Democratization
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Introduction vii
  • 1 - Categorization and Social Agents: the Case of Democratization 1
  • 2 - A Cognitive Model of Concepts and Ideology 35
  • Note 86
  • 3 - Ideological Systems, Dynamics, and Constraints 87
  • Notes 112
  • 4 - Mass Attitudes in the Transition to Electoral Democracy 113
  • 5 - Governing Elites, Counterelites, and the Struggle to Shape Mass Opinion 157
  • Conclusions 193
  • Bibliography 197
  • Index 217
  • About the Authors 221
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