Several communist parties that had formed either by splitting from existing socialist parties or formed without such predecessors accepted the Twenty-One Conditions and were admitted to the Comintern. Many of these parties were in Europe. However, not all the European communist parties were able to make a revolution or come to power. However, between the end of World War II and the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, eight nations in Eastern Europe had Marxist-Leninist governments: Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, and Yugoslavia. We will take up their cases first, before turning to the less successful communist parties that remained out of national power in Western Europe.
The Polska Partja Socjalistycyna (PPS), or Polish Socialist Party, was founded in Paris in November 1892 by a convention of Polish socialists. 1 The PPS had been preceded by socialist groups going back to the 1830s. In the spring of 1893 a rival Socjal-Demokracja Królestwa Polskiego (SDKP), or Social Democracy of the Kingdom of Poland, was founded by dissidents from the convention in Paris the year before. Among the leaders of the SDKP were Rosa Luxemburg, Julian Marchlewski, and Adolf Warski (or Warszawski). The SDKP was the more Marxist of the two groups, and was opposed to the nationalist demands for a Poland indepen-