The Portuguese colony of Macao (Macau) is an enclave consisting of a peninsula of the Chinese mainland and two small islands (Taipa and Coloane) located on the southern side of the mouth of the Canton River. Macao City is located on the peninsula and is separated from mainland China by a causeway. The colony was first settled by the Portuguese in 1557 and is the oldest European settlement in western Asia. The Portuguese paid an annual tithe to the Chinese for the use of the trading post until 1849, when they declared its independence and closed the Chinese customs house. By that time, Macao had became the chief port for Sino-European trade, but it soon began to lose its importance to the nearby British colony of Hong Kong. Macao was not occupied by the Japanese during World War II, as was Hong Kong, and regained some of its importance as a supplier of goods to southern China. In January 1967, Communist Chinese gunboats entered Macao Harbor in support of Chinese protests over the shooting of communist demonstrators during a December 1966 riot. Communist-inspired violence erupted again in July 1967, following rioting in Hong Kong. The rioting subsided as soon as British troops restored order in Hong Kong. On 1 March 1972, China announced its claim on Macao (and Hong Kong) at the United Nations. Portugal granted the colony broad autonomy in 1976 and made an agreement with China in 1987 to return the colony to China in 1999. Much as with Hong Kong, Macao is to become a “special administrative region.” In 1989, the Portuguese issued passports to almost 30 percent of the colony's population. A major bribery scandal rocked the colony in September 1990, when the Portuguese governor was forced to resign and return to Europe after accepting $300,000 in kickbacks from a German firm. In most other ways, Macao followed Hong Kong in the preparations for handing the colony over to the People's Republic. Reading: T. Jeff Williams, Macao (1988).
(b. 26 January 1880, Little Rock, Arkansas—d. 5 April 1964, Washington, DC) Born the son of an army general and Civil War hero, MacArthur entered the United States Military Academy in June 1899 and