Qabus (Qaboos) bin (ibn) Said (Sa'id).
(b. 18 November 1940, Muscat and Oman) Qabus studied at Bury Saint Edmunds school in Suffolk, England. He then attended the Royal Military Academy, Sandhurst. In 1965 he was called home by his father, the Sultan of Oman, and was kept a prisoner for six years. In a palace coup on 23 July 1970, Oman's Sultan Sa'id bin Taimur (qv) was overthrown by his son. Qabus moved immediately to bring his country out of the Dark Ages, but he faced many problems in doing so. These problems included severe labor unrest and trouble with Dhofar (qv) rebels. Qabus received military assistance with the latter from the Shah of Iran (qv). Qabus remained sultan in 1995. See Oman.
(b. 1942, near Suit, Libya) Qaddafi was born in a tent, the son of a nomadic itinerant farmer. An devout Muslim and ardent nationalist, he graduated from the University of Libya in 1963 and soon afterward began plotting the overthrow of Libya's King Idris II (qv). Qaddafi graduated from the Libyan military academy in 1965 and rose steadily through the ranks while continuing his plotting to overthrow the king. On 1 September 1969, Qaddafi, supported by other army officers, took power through a military coup. He was named commander in chief of the armed forces and chairman of the governing body, the Revolutionary Command Council, at age twenty-seven.By the end of 1970, Qaddafi had ordered all U.S. and British bases off Libyan soil andexpelled thousands of Italian and Jewish citizens and expatriates out of the country. In 1973, he nationalized all foreign-owned petroleum assets in Libya and outlawed all alcohol and gambling according to his strict interpretation of Islamic law. On a number of occasions he tried, but failed, to unify his country with other Arab states. His adamant opposition to any form of rapprochement with Israel led Qaddafi to become the leader of the so-called Rejectionist Front of the Arab world. He has been accused of masterminding several failed coup attempts against Egypt and Sudan and of open intervention in the long-running civil war in Chad (qv). After 1974, Qaddafi became more erratic, and his unpredictable behavior created tensions around the world. His embrace of a populist Islamic socialism called for the nationalization of most sectors of the economy and the