The North Vietnamese government-controlled broadcasting system used extensively to deliver propaganda to South Vietnam during the war.
Rafid, Golan Heights.
See Israel; Syria.
Rafsanjani, Hasheimi (Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani).
(b. 1934, Rafsanjan, Kerman Province, Iran) Rafsanjani was bom the son of a prosperous farmer who resided in Rafsanjan. His early education was in local religious schools; later he moved to Qom and attended the theological seminary there. In the late 1950s he finished his studies with the rank of hojatolislam, the second highest rank among Shi'ite Muslim clergy. In 1958 he became a disciple of Ayatollah Rhuollar Khomeini (qv). Taking up Khomeini's opposition to the Shah of Iran (qv), Rafsanjani remained in Iran when his mentor was exiled in 1962. Raising funds for Khomeini's campaign against modernization in Iran, Rafsanjani was eventually arrested and imprisoned from 1975 to 1978 on charges of dealing with communist terrorists. When Khomeini returned to Iran after the shah's overthrow in 1979, Rafsanjani became one of his chief advisers and helped found the Islamic Republican Party. He also was appointed to the Revolutionary Council and was elected to the Majlis, the Iranian parliament. During his nine-year tenure in that body, he was instrumental in the prosecution of the Iran-Iraq War (qv) (1980-1988) and was involved in the cease-fire that ended it (August 1988). Upon Khomeini's death in June 1989, Rafsanjani was elected president of Iran. He was widely criticized among Iranians for his part in the arms-for-hostages deal in the Iran-Contra scandal that touched off a political crisis in the United States. Rafsanjani has also been criticized for his alleged authorizing of the murders of political opponents in Iran and abroad and for dealing with Communist China in the development of nuclear weapons. In 1995, Rafsanjani continued as head of state in Iran.
Ragged Island, Bahamas.
On 13 May 1980, five Cuban jets buzzed a small village on Ragged Island. As the Bahamas are within the United States air defense zone, U.S. fighters were scrambled to intercept the intruders, who headed for home as soon as the presence of U.S. aircraft was detected.