On 4 March 1951, Mohammed Mossadegh (qv) became prime minister of Iran. By 1953, his policies had lost him most of the support that had originally put him in power. After April 1953, an open power struggle developed between Mossadegh and General Fazollah Zahedi, a former minister of interior. In August, the shah issued an edict appointing Zahedi prime minister. An attempt to arrest Mossadegh failed, and he was able to rally sufficient support that civil war appeared imminent. The shah fled to Rome, and Zahedi went into hiding (15 August). Four days later, however, the army overthrew Mossadegh, and Zahedi was installed as prime minister. Zahedi remained in office leading a Western-oriented government until 1955, when he was replaced by Husain 'Ala. Zahedi's government had been returned to office by a huge majority in the elections held on 20 February 1954.
Zahir Khan, Mohammed.
Zahir Khan became king of Afghanistan in 1933. On 17 July 1973, a coup led by the king's brother-in-law, Lieutenant General Prince Mohammad Daud Khan (qv), overthrew the monarchy. Zahir Khan was in Italy undergoing medical treatment at the time and elected to remain there after Afghanistan was declared a republic. See Afghanistan.
On 30 March 1949, a bloody military coup led by the army chief of staff, Husni Za'im, overthrew the government of Syrian President Shukri al-Kuwatly (qv). Za'im was installed as president. On 14 August 1949, Za'im was overthrown in another coup, this time led by Sami al-Hinnawi. Za'im was arrested and executed. Hashim al-Atasi (qv) became president at that time.
The Republic of Zaire is located in central Africa. It is bordered on the northwest by the Central African Republic, on the northeast by Sudan, on the east by Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi and Tanzania, on the southeast and south by Zambia, on the southwest by Angola and on the west by Congo. Zaire is drained by the mighty Congo River, which remains inside the Zambian border until it empties into the Atlantic Ocean. In the period before European expansion into the region, the lands that are today Zaire were organized in several major kingdoms—Kongo, Luba, Lunda, Lele, Kuba and Bola—the last three being little more than vast tribal areas. In the last half of the nineteenth century, King