Encyclopedia of Eastern Europe: From the Congress of Vienna to the Fall of Communism

By Richard Frucht | Go to book overview

I
Iancu, Avram (1824–72)

Transylvanian-born Romanian who led the armed resistance to the Hungarians in Transylvania during the revolution of 1848–49. The son of well-off peasants, Iancu studied law at the secondary school in Cluj (Hungarian, Kolozsvár) from 1841 to 1847. After working briefly with the provincial treasury in Sibiu, he was engaged by the provincial court in Tîrgu Mureş. As the leader of the Romanian patriots in that city, he helped organize the Romanian National Committee to defend Romanian rights. Relations with the Hungarians over Romanian rights in Transylvania worsened, and at an assembly in Blaj in September 1848, the people were called to arms. Iancu became the leader of the suprisingly successful Romanian military resistance to the Hungarians. While allied with the Austrian imperial forces, he controlled Transylvania's Western Mountains and was popularly titled “King of the Mountains.” He received peace overtures from the Hungarian government sceptically but eventually declared his troops' neutrality after Hungary approved a liberal nationality statute in July 1849. Owing to this fact, as well as to his stubborn defense of the mountaineers' social interests, the victorious Austrians offered him only a mediocre decoration, which he refused. Arrested and abused by local authorities in 1852, he became mentally deranged and never again played a public role. Romanians considered him a hero and a martyr.

James P. Niessen


Further reading

Dragomir, Silviu. Avram Iancu. Bucharest, 1965.

Pascu, Stefan. Avram lancu: Viaţa şi faptele unui erou şi martir. Bucharest, 1972.

Ranca, loan. Avram Iancu: Documente şi bibliografie. Bucharest, 1974.

Teodor, Pompiliu. Avram Iancu in memoralistica, Cluj, Romania, 1972.

See also Blaj; Hungarian War for Independence; Revolutions of 1848


Iaşi

Historic capital of Moldavia. Situated 8 miles (13.5 km) from the border with Moldova on the shores of the Bahlui River, Iaşi was settled in the seventh century. By the fourteenth century, it served as a military outpost and customs station on trade routes. The city gradually succeeded Suceava as the capital of Moldavia in the sixteenth century as ruling families established their primary residence in the more economically prosperous area of Iaşi.

As the Moldavian capital, Iaşi was the site of many historic events. In 1792 the Treaty of Iaşi recognized Russian acquisition of the lands between the Bug and Dniester Rivers and redrew the Russian border tangent to Moldavia. In January 1859 Moldavians hoping to unify the Danubian Principalities into one state unanimously elected Alexandru loan Cuza (1820–73) to rule Moldavia. Elections soon followed in Bucharest, confirming Cuza's reign over Wallachia too. The de facto unification of the two territories by the double election of Cuza was a precursor to the formation of the independent Romanian national

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Encyclopedia of Eastern Europe: From the Congress of Vienna to the Fall of Communism
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Introduction vii
  • Contributors ix
  • Encyclopedia of Eastern Europe xv
  • A - Abakanowicz, Magdalena (1930–) 1
  • B - Babits, Mihaly (1883–1941) 45
  • C - Cankar, Ivan (1876–1918) 117
  • D - Dalmatia 211
  • E - East Prussia 235
  • F - Family 265
  • G - Gafencu, Grigore (1892–1957) 283
  • H - Habsburg Empire 317
  • I - Iancu, Avram (1824–72) 375
  • J - Jagiellonian University 395
  • K - Kádár, János (1912–89) 411
  • L - Labor 441
  • M - Macedonia (Geography) 469
  • N - Načertanije 519
  • O - Obradović, Dositej (Dimitrije) (C. 1739–1811) 543
  • P - Paderewski, Ignacy Jan (1860–1941) 555
  • R - Račić, Josip (1885–1908) 647
  • S - Sabin, Albert Bruce (1906–93) 707
  • T - Taaffe, Count Eduard (1833–95) 785
  • U - Udržal, František (1868–1938) 819
  • V - Varna 825
  • W - Wajda, Andrzej (1926–) 837
  • X - Xenopol, Alexandra D. (1847–1920) 863
  • Y - Yalta Conference 865
  • Z - Zadruga 899
  • Index 909
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