Encyclopedia of Eastern Europe: From the Congress of Vienna to the Fall of Communism

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P
Paderewski, Ignacy Jan (1860–1941)

Polish pianist, composer, statesman, philanthropist, and patriot. From 1872 to 1878, Paderewski studied piano at the Warsaw Conservatory; from 1881 to 1883, composition in Berlin; and from 1884 to 1887, piano in Vienna. In 1887 he began giving concerts in western Europe. In 1890 he gave his first concert in the United States at New York's Carnegie Hall, which initiated a concert tour in North America. Paderewski also gave concerts in South Africa, South America, Australia, and New Zealand. During World War I, Paderewski organized an assistance committee in Switzerland for the Polish victims of the war and for the Polish Victims Relief Fund in London; he also participated in organizing Polish voluntary military troops in the United States.

As prime minister and minister of foreign affairs of the republic of Poland (1919), Paderewski signed the Versailles treaty, which ended World War I. From 1920 to 1921, he represented Poland in the League of Nations. After the outbreak of World War II in Europe in 1939, Paderewski launched a campaign in the United States to gain help for Poland. During 1940–41, he presided over the State Council of the Polish government-in-exile.

Paderewski spent a large portion of his resources on philanthropic purposes. In 1896 he set up a foundation in the United States for young composers. Two years later, he founded two competitions in Warsaw (for music and drama). And in 1910 he helped erect a monument in Kraków commemorating the quincentenary of the Polish victory over the Teutonic Knights at Grunwald in 1410.

Paderewski's compositional output (seventeen opus numbers and several unnumbered works) includes numerous piano miniatures, Violin Sonata op. 13, Piano Concerto op. 17, the opera Manru op. 20, Symphony op. 24, Fantasie Polonaise op. 19 for piano and orchestra, and vocal compositions.

Jolanta T.Pękacz


Further reading

Drozdowski, M.M. Ignacy Jan Paderewski: A Political Biography. Warsaw, 1981.

Paderewski, I.J. and M. Lawton. The Paderewski Memoirs (1939). New York, 1980.

Przybylski, H. Między muzyką a polityką. Katowice, Poland, 1992.

Zamoyski, A. Paderewski. London, 1982.

See also League of Nations; Music; Paris Peace Conference


Paisii of Hilendar (Paisii Khilendarski) (1722–73)

Bulgarian monk and historian and first great figure of the Bulgarian Renaissance. Born in the trading town of Bansko, Paisii (his given name is unknown) received little formal schooling. At the age of twenty-three, he traveled to Mount Athos in Greece and entered the Hilendar monastery, where his elder brother was abbot. The monasteries at Mount Athos were centers of South Slavic culture and maintained contacts throughout the Eastern Orthodox lands. Paisii used the monastery library to improve his education. The monks were fond of debating historical, cultural, and religious topics,

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Encyclopedia of Eastern Europe: From the Congress of Vienna to the Fall of Communism
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Introduction vii
  • Contributors ix
  • Encyclopedia of Eastern Europe xv
  • A - Abakanowicz, Magdalena (1930–) 1
  • B - Babits, Mihaly (1883–1941) 45
  • C - Cankar, Ivan (1876–1918) 117
  • D - Dalmatia 211
  • E - East Prussia 235
  • F - Family 265
  • G - Gafencu, Grigore (1892–1957) 283
  • H - Habsburg Empire 317
  • I - Iancu, Avram (1824–72) 375
  • J - Jagiellonian University 395
  • K - Kádár, János (1912–89) 411
  • L - Labor 441
  • M - Macedonia (Geography) 469
  • N - Načertanije 519
  • O - Obradović, Dositej (Dimitrije) (C. 1739–1811) 543
  • P - Paderewski, Ignacy Jan (1860–1941) 555
  • R - Račić, Josip (1885–1908) 647
  • S - Sabin, Albert Bruce (1906–93) 707
  • T - Taaffe, Count Eduard (1833–95) 785
  • U - Udržal, František (1868–1938) 819
  • V - Varna 825
  • W - Wajda, Andrzej (1926–) 837
  • X - Xenopol, Alexandra D. (1847–1920) 863
  • Y - Yalta Conference 865
  • Z - Zadruga 899
  • Index 909
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