Encyclopedia of Eastern Europe: From the Congress of Vienna to the Fall of Communism

By Richard Frucht | Go to book overview

T
Taaffe, Count Eduard (1833–95)

Austrian official and twice minister-president. Having held a number of high administrative posts between 1867 and 1879, including minister of the interior, minister of defense, minister-president, and governor of Tirol, Taaffe attained greatest notoriety for his management of the Austrian government as interior minister and minister-president from 1879 to 1891. A conservative aristocrat who had been a boyhood friend of Emperor Franz Joseph (1830–1916), Taaffe regarded himself primarily as a servant of the monarch. Governing with the support of the Iron Ring Coalition, which included German conservative, Czech, and Polish delegates in the Reichsrat (parliament), Taaffe displaced the previously dominant German Liberals and redirected Austrian politics from issues of constitutional structure and parliamentary development to a “muddling through” focused on the negotiation of concessions to national and social interest groups. Under his government, concessions to Slavic national demands included the division of the University of Prague into Czech and German faculties and the Streymayr Ordinances (1880), which extended the official use of Czech in Bohemia and Moravia.

Taaffe attempted to overcome persistent political problems by manipulating the qualifications for electoral participation. To weaken the German Liberals, he extended the suffrage by lowering the requisite yearly taxation payment to five gulden in 1882. Faced with intensifying national and social conflict in his last years in office, he moved to expand the suffrage to include nearly all adult men in 1893. He thereby lost the support of his conservative parliamentary allies and fell from power.

Philip Pajakowski


Further reading

Beck, Georg. “Die Personlichkeit des Grafen Eduard Taaffe.” Ph.D. diss., University of Vienna, 1949.

Jenks, William A. Austria under the Iron Ring, 1879–1893. Charlottesville, Virginia, 1965.

Skedl, Arthur, ed. Der politische Nachlass des Grafen Eduard Taaffe. Vienna, 1923.

See also Franz Joseph


Tanzimat

Reform era in the Ottoman Empire from 1839 to 1876 (the reigns of Abdul Mejid [1839–61] and Abdul Aziz [1861–76]), continuing and amplifying the reforms begun by Mahmud II (1785–1839). Strengthening the armed forces had been Mahmud's priority, and he controlled the reforms. The tanzimat (reorganization) was guided by three leading statesmen in the civil bureaucracy: Mustafa Reshid Pasha (1800–1858), Ali Pasha (1815–71), and Fuad Pasha (1815–69). The reforms they initiated were seen as a challenge to the traditional order. They and their supporters sought to strengthen the administrative, fiscal, and military power of the central government. In the process, they also hoped to create a greater sense of common loyalty (Osmanlilik [Ottomanism]) among the empire's ethnically diverse subjects by promoting civic equality. The imperial decrees, Hatt-i Sherif (1839) and Hatt-i Hümayun of Gülhane (1856), and the constitution issued in 1876 exemplified the latter goal. Both practical needs and a broad ideal necessitated changes in administration and education. The Vilayet Law of 1864 reorganized provincial government. Sanjaks, heretofore the

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Encyclopedia of Eastern Europe: From the Congress of Vienna to the Fall of Communism
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Introduction vii
  • Contributors ix
  • Encyclopedia of Eastern Europe xv
  • A - Abakanowicz, Magdalena (1930–) 1
  • B - Babits, Mihaly (1883–1941) 45
  • C - Cankar, Ivan (1876–1918) 117
  • D - Dalmatia 211
  • E - East Prussia 235
  • F - Family 265
  • G - Gafencu, Grigore (1892–1957) 283
  • H - Habsburg Empire 317
  • I - Iancu, Avram (1824–72) 375
  • J - Jagiellonian University 395
  • K - Kádár, János (1912–89) 411
  • L - Labor 441
  • M - Macedonia (Geography) 469
  • N - Načertanije 519
  • O - Obradović, Dositej (Dimitrije) (C. 1739–1811) 543
  • P - Paderewski, Ignacy Jan (1860–1941) 555
  • R - Račić, Josip (1885–1908) 647
  • S - Sabin, Albert Bruce (1906–93) 707
  • T - Taaffe, Count Eduard (1833–95) 785
  • U - Udržal, František (1868–1938) 819
  • V - Varna 825
  • W - Wajda, Andrzej (1926–) 837
  • X - Xenopol, Alexandra D. (1847–1920) 863
  • Y - Yalta Conference 865
  • Z - Zadruga 899
  • Index 909
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