Encyclopedia of Eastern Europe: From the Congress of Vienna to the Fall of Communism

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X
Xenopol, Alexandra D. (1847–1920)

Romanian historian. Born near Iaşi, Xenopol was the son of an immigrant schoolmaster. Xenopol received doctorates (1871) in law from Berlin and philosophy from Giessen. At the four hundredth anniversary celebration of Putna Monastery in 1871, Xenopol came to national attention by delivering the prize speech, an impassioned urging of Romanian unity. In Iaşi, he became a public prosecutor, history instructor at the Academic Institute, and recording secretary of the Junimea Society, the Romanian cultural and literary association. However, his seriousness contrasted with Junimea's traditionally lighthearted style. This contributed to his break with the society in 1878.

Xenopol's first historical monograph, the two-volume History of Russian-Turkish Relations 1711–1877 (1880), identified Russia as Romania's most threatening enemy, a recurring theme in his writing. In 1888 he published the first of six annual volumes of History of Romanians from Trajan's Dacia, his great patriotic synthesis of Romanian history to 1859; two additional volumes covered the reign of Prince Alexandru Ioan Cuza (1820–73), the first prince of the United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia. After an appointment as professor, he became rector of the University of Iaşi in 1898. Among many other honors, he was elected to the Romanian Academy (1893) and to be a corresponding member of the French Institute (1900).

Xenopol argued for a scientific history studying unique events, not natural categories, and making observations about reality, not general laws. He viewed historical reality as the product of four principles: constant factors such as climate and race; historical conditions, the specific contexts of an event; historical series, the sequence of events that result from the interaction of constant factors and historical conditions; and historical forces that produce and define the historicity of a series of events. Echoing contemporary scientific thought, he identified evolution as such a force of history, refining the material into the organic and ultimately the spiritual. Both his Romanian history and his philosophy were challenged during his lifetime by younger historians, including his former student and most famous Romanian historian, Nicolae Iorga (1871–1940), who distanced themselves from Xenopol's enthusiasms and conclusions.

Ernest H. Latham Jr.


Further reading

Hiemstra, Paul A. Alexandru D. Xenopol and the Development of Romanian Historiography. New York, 1987.

Hitchins, Keith. Rumania: 1866–1947. Oxford, 1994.

Michelson, Paul E. “Themes in Modern and Contemporary Romanian Historiography, ” in East European History, ed. by Stanislav J. Kirschbaum. Columbus, Ohio, 1988, 27–40.

Zub, Alexandru. A.D. Xenopol: Biobibliografie. Bucharest, 1973.

See also Alexandru Ioan Cuza; Nicolae Iorga; Junimea; United Principalities


Xoxe, Koci (1911–49)

Albanian Communist. Born in Greece, Xoxe went to work in his father's shop as an artisan after

-863-

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Encyclopedia of Eastern Europe: From the Congress of Vienna to the Fall of Communism
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Introduction vii
  • Contributors ix
  • Encyclopedia of Eastern Europe xv
  • A - Abakanowicz, Magdalena (1930–) 1
  • B - Babits, Mihaly (1883–1941) 45
  • C - Cankar, Ivan (1876–1918) 117
  • D - Dalmatia 211
  • E - East Prussia 235
  • F - Family 265
  • G - Gafencu, Grigore (1892–1957) 283
  • H - Habsburg Empire 317
  • I - Iancu, Avram (1824–72) 375
  • J - Jagiellonian University 395
  • K - Kádár, János (1912–89) 411
  • L - Labor 441
  • M - Macedonia (Geography) 469
  • N - Načertanije 519
  • O - Obradović, Dositej (Dimitrije) (C. 1739–1811) 543
  • P - Paderewski, Ignacy Jan (1860–1941) 555
  • R - Račić, Josip (1885–1908) 647
  • S - Sabin, Albert Bruce (1906–93) 707
  • T - Taaffe, Count Eduard (1833–95) 785
  • U - Udržal, František (1868–1938) 819
  • V - Varna 825
  • W - Wajda, Andrzej (1926–) 837
  • X - Xenopol, Alexandra D. (1847–1920) 863
  • Y - Yalta Conference 865
  • Z - Zadruga 899
  • Index 909
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