Companion to the History of Modern Science

By R. C. Olby; G. N. Cantor et al. | Go to book overview
one's philosophical musings separate from 'real' history, that he makes virtually no use of his own model of scientific change when discussing – as he does at length – the history of quantum theory.
4
There are occasions when historians of science have (usually quite rightly) faulted the historical analyses offered by one or another philosopher. Peirce Williams has even asked, not facetiously, whether philosophers of science should be allowed to do history. But the question whether philosophers of science do good or bad history is wholly distinct from the question whether historians of science should address philosophical questions in doing their research.
5
If this seems an unfair generalisation, consider three of the recent books by historians of science that have attracted much interest and critical praise: D. Kevles's The physicists, C. Gillispie's Science and polity in 18th-century France, and A. Thackray's and J. Morrell's Gentlemen of science. Despite their immense erudition, all three works studiously avoid telling us anything whatever of the views concerning the natural world of the scientists they study. Indeed, there is virtually no history of science (as that term was traditionally understood) in any of these works.
6
T. S. Kuhn, 'History of science', in P. Asquith and H. Kyburg (eds.), Current research in philosophy of science (1979), p. 126.
7
T. S. Kuhn, The structure of scientific revolutions, p. 1. Contrast this attitude with Butterfield's sturdy insistence that:

behind all the fallacies of the whig historian there lies the passionate desire … to make history answer questions and decide issues. (Butterfield (1931), pp. 64–5)

8
T. S. Kuhn, The essential tension, p. 130.
9
Historians of science, of course, disagreed amongst themselves about exactly how the 'progressive' story of science should be told, and about some of its central elements. But there was near unanimity that science had become more successful through time and that the historian's task was to study the conditions which made that progression possible.
10
Recall, for instance, Charles Gillispie's The edge of objectivity (Princeton, 1962).
11
The young Butterfield thought that, if one succumbs to this temptation, then 'historical personages can easily and irresistibly be classed into the men who furthered progress and the men who tried to hinder it … ' (Butterfield (1931), p. 11). Later in his career, Butterfield changed his mind almost entirely on this issue; when he wrote on the history of science, indeed, he was Whiggish in the extreme.
12
Ibid., p. 11.
13
See especially Kuhn's The essential tension (Chicago, 1977), chap. 6.

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND FURTHER READING

J. Agassi, 'Towards an historiography of science', History and theory, Beiheft 2(1963).

P. Asquith and H. Kyburg (eds.), Current research in philosophy of science (Ann Arbor, 1979).

R. Burian, 'More than a marriage of convenience', Philosophy of science, 44(1977), 1–42.

H. Butterfield, The Whig interpretation of history (London, 1931).

I. B. Cohen, 'History and the philosopher of science', in F. Suppe (ed.), The structure of scientific theories (Urbana, 1977), pp. 308–49.

R. Giere, 'History and philosophy of science: intimate relationship or marriage of convenience?' British journal for the philosophy of science, 24(1973), 282–97.

C. Gillispie, The edge of objectivity (Princeton, 1962).

T. S. Kuhn, The structure of scientific revolutions (Chicago, 1962).

T. S. Kuhn, The essential tension( Chicago, 1977).

Imre Lakatos, 'History of science and its rational reconstructions', in R. Buck and R. Cohen (eds.), Boston studies in the philosophy of science, vol. 8 (Dordrecht, 1971), pp. 91ff.

Larry Laudan et al., 'Scientific change: philosophical models and historical research', Synthèse, 69(1986), 141–224.

-58-

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Companion to the History of Modern Science
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Preface xi
  • Introduction xiii
  • Part I - The Study of the History of Science 1
  • Section Ia - History of Science in Relation to Neighbouring Disciplines 3
  • 1 - The Development of the Historiography of Science 5
  • Notes 21
  • 2 - The History of Science and the Working Scientist 23
  • Further Reading 31
  • 3 - The History of Science and the History of Society 32
  • Notes 46
  • 4 - The History of Science and the Philosophy of Science 47
  • Notes 57
  • Bibliography and Further Reading 58
  • 5 - Sociological Theories of Scientific Knowledge 60
  • Notes 72
  • Further Reading 72
  • Section Ib - Analytical Perspectives 75
  • 6 - Marxism and the History of Science 77
  • Notes 85
  • 7 - The Sociology of the Scientific Community 87
  • Notes 98
  • 8 - Feminism and the History of Science 100
  • 9 - Language, Discourse and Science 110
  • Notes 121
  • Further Reading 122
  • Section IC - Philosophical Problems 125
  • 10 - Continental Philosophy and the History of Science 127
  • Further Reading 146
  • 11 - Discovery 148
  • Further Reading 165
  • 12 - Rationality, Science and History 166
  • Notes 179
  • 13 - Realism 181
  • Part II - Selected Writings in the History of Science 197
  • Section Iia - Turning Points 199
  • 14 - The Copernican Revolution 201
  • 15 - The Scientific Revolution 217
  • Further Reading 242
  • 16 - Newton and Natural Philosophy 243
  • Further Reading 262
  • 17 - The Chemical Revolution 264
  • Further Reading 276
  • 18 - Laplacian Physics 278
  • Further Reading 293
  • 19 - Natural History, 1670–1802 295
  • Notes 312
  • 20 - The History of Geology, 1780–1840 314
  • 21 - Energy 326
  • Notes 340
  • 22 - Electromagnetic Theory in the Nineteenth Century 342
  • Notes 355
  • 23 - Cell Theory and Development 357
  • Notes 371
  • Further Reading 372
  • 24 - Origins and Species Before and After Darwin 374
  • Further Reading 394
  • 25 - Wilhelm Wundt and the Emergence of Experimental Psychology 396
  • Further Reading 408
  • 26 - Behaviourism 410
  • Further Reading 423
  • 27 - Freud and Psychoanalysis 425
  • Further Reading 440
  • 28 - The Theory of Relativity 442
  • 29 - Quantum Theory 458
  • Notes 477
  • 30 - Classical Economics and the Keynesian Revolution 479
  • 31 - From Physiology to Biochemistry 494
  • Further Reading 502
  • 32 - The Molecular Revolution in Biology 503
  • Notes 519
  • 33 - The Emergence of Genetics 521
  • Notes 535
  • 34 - Cybernetics and Information Technology 537
  • Notes 552
  • Section Iib - Topics and Interpretations 555
  • 35 - Aristotelian Science 557
  • Further Reading 566
  • 36 - The Heart and Blood from Vesalius to Harvey 568
  • Notes 581
  • 37 - Magic and Science in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries 583
  • Notes 594
  • Further Reading 595
  • 38 - Atomism and the Mechanical Philosophy 597
  • Notes 609
  • 39 - Newtonianism 610
  • Notes 625
  • 40 - Physical Optics 627
  • Notes 637
  • 41 - Cosmology: Newton to Einstein 639
  • 42 - Geometry and Space 651
  • Notes 659
  • 43 - Particle Science 661
  • 44 - The Foundations of Mathematics 677
  • Further Reading 688
  • 45 - Probability and Determinism, 1650–1900 690
  • Further Reading 700
  • 46 - The Mind–body Problem 702
  • Further Reading 710
  • 47 - Paradigmatic Traditions in the History of Anthropology 712
  • Notes 726
  • 48 - Physiology and Experimental Medicine 728
  • Notes 741
  • 49 - Geography 743
  • Notes 759
  • Section Iic - Themes 761
  • 50 - Science and Religion 763
  • Notes 782
  • 51 - Science and Literature 783
  • Further Reading 797
  • 52 - Science and Philosophy 799
  • 53 - The Development of Philosophy of Science 1600–1900 816
  • Notes 836
  • 54 - The Development of Philosophy of Science Since 1900 838
  • 55 - The Classification of the Sciences 853
  • Further Reading 868
  • 56 - Marginal Science 869
  • Notes 882
  • Further Reading 883
  • 57 - Science, Alienation and Oppression 886
  • Further Reading 896
  • 58 - Orthodoxies, Critiques and Alternatives 898
  • 59 - Nationalism and Internationalism 909
  • Notes 918
  • 60 - Science and Imperialism 920
  • Notes 931
  • 61 - Science and War 934
  • Notes 943
  • Further Reading 944
  • 62 - Science Education 946
  • Notes 958
  • 63 - The Organisation of Science and Its Pursuit in Early Modern Europe 960
  • Notes 975
  • Appendix 977
  • 64 - Professionalisation 980
  • 65 - Science and the Public 990
  • Notes 1006
  • 66 - Science and Political Ideology, 1790–1848 1008
  • Notes 1022
  • 67 - Natural Science and Social Theory 1024
  • Further Reading 1042
  • The Contributors 1044
  • Index of Names 1047
  • Index of Subjects 1060
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