Companion to the History of Modern Science

By R. C. Olby; G. N. Cantor et al. | Go to book overview
by Edwin Lankester as Principles of scientific botany (London, 1849), and reissued with introduction by Jacob Lorch (New York, 1969), pp. ix–xxxiv.
6
Theodore Schwann, Mikroscopische Untersuchungen über die Übereinstimmung in der Struktur and dem Wachstum der Tiere und Pflanzen (Berlin, 1839), translated by Henry Smith. As Frederick Churchill has pointed out, 'Rudolf Virchow and the pathologist's criteria for the inheritance of acquired characteristics', Journal of the history of medicine and allied sciences, 31 (1976), 117–48, p. 124, Schwann's ideas about cells first appeared in a series of letters.
7
For an early summary discussion of such work see John Gray McKendrick, 'On the modern cell theory and the phenomena of fecundation', Proceedings of the Royal Philosophical Society of Glasgow, 19 (1887–8), 71–125.
8
Hermann Fol, 'Le Quadrille des Centres. Un épisode nouveau dans l'histoire de la fécondation', Archives des sciences physiques et naturelles, 25 (1891), 393–420; Oscar Hertwig, Altere und neuere Entwicklungs-theorieen (Berlin, 1892); Eduard Strasburger, Zellbildung und Zellteilung (Jena: 1875, 3rd edition, 1880); Strasburger, 'Die Controversen der indirekten Zelltheilung', Archiv für mikroscopische Anatomie, 23 (1884), 246–304. The details of chromosomal and related division were explored by many researchers in the late nineteenth century, as discussed by Gloria Robinson, A Prelude to genetics: theories of a material substance of heredity (Lawrence, Kansas, 1979).
9
Eduard van Beneden, 'Recherches sur la maturation de l'œuf et la fécondation', Archives de biologie, 4 (1883), 265–640; Hall excerpts, pp. 456–58; van Beneden, 'Nouvelles recherches sur la fécondation et la division mitosique chez l'Ascaride mégélocéphale', Bulletin de l'Academie Royale des Sciences, des Letters et des Beaux-Arts de Belgique, 14 (1887), 215–95; Theodor Boveri, Zellenstudien (Jena, vol. 1 1887, vol. 2 1888, vol. 3 1890, vol. 4 1900); Oscar Hertwig, 'Experimentelle Studien am tierischen Ei vor, während und nach der Befruchtung', Jenaische Zeitschrift, 24 (1890), 268–313. Other related studies proliferated as well, including especially important contributions to the study of cell division and heredity by Richard Hertwig and Theodor Boveri and work on reduction division by August Weismann.
10
Reports of the cell lineage work appeared in a numbr of articles in the Journal of morphology which Whitman edited and in the MBL's Biological lectures through the 1890s. Jane Maienschein, 'Cell lineage, ancestral reminiscence, and the biogenetic law', Journal of the history of biology, 11 (1978), 129–58 discusses the work.
11
Charles Manning Child, 'The significance of the spiral type of cleavage and its relation to the process of differentiation', MBL's Biological lectures 1899 (1900), 231–66, quotation p. 265.
12
Wilson, The cell, pp. 4–6, quotation p. 6.
13
For introductions to some of this work: C. H. Waddington, Biological organisation. Cellular and sub-cellular (New York, 1959) presents results of a working discussion-oriented symposium of 1957. Jean Brachet and Alfred E. Mirsky's The cell (New York, 1959) presents six impressive volumes of papers summarising the conclusions about methods and problems (vol. I), cell components (vol. II), meiosis and mitosis (vol. III), specialised cells (vol. IV and V), and a supplement (vol. VI). Since then there has been an explosion of books, journals, textbooks and even popular books devoted to study of the cell and cell theory.

FURTHER READING

Erwin Ackerknecht, Rudolf Virchow. Doctor, statesman, anthropologist (Madison, 1953).

John R. Baker, 'The cell-theory: A restatement, history, and critique', Quarterly review of microscopical science, 89(1948), 103–25; 90(1949), 87–108; 93(1952), 157–90; 94(1953), 407–40; 96(1955), 449–81.

Jean Brachet and Alfred E. Mirsky (eds.), The cell (New York, 1959), 6 vols.

William Coleman, Biology in the nineteenth century (Cambridge, 1977), chaps. 2 and 3.

William Coleman, 'Cell, nucleus, and inheritance: an historical study', Proceedings of the American philosophical society, 109(1965), 124–58.

John Farley, Gametes and spores (Baltimore, 1982), especially Chap. 6.

Gerald L. Geison, 'The protoplasmic theory of life and the vitalist-mechanist debate', Isis, 60(1969), 273–92.

-372-

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Companion to the History of Modern Science
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Preface xi
  • Introduction xiii
  • Part I - The Study of the History of Science 1
  • Section Ia - History of Science in Relation to Neighbouring Disciplines 3
  • 1 - The Development of the Historiography of Science 5
  • Notes 21
  • 2 - The History of Science and the Working Scientist 23
  • Further Reading 31
  • 3 - The History of Science and the History of Society 32
  • Notes 46
  • 4 - The History of Science and the Philosophy of Science 47
  • Notes 57
  • Bibliography and Further Reading 58
  • 5 - Sociological Theories of Scientific Knowledge 60
  • Notes 72
  • Further Reading 72
  • Section Ib - Analytical Perspectives 75
  • 6 - Marxism and the History of Science 77
  • Notes 85
  • 7 - The Sociology of the Scientific Community 87
  • Notes 98
  • 8 - Feminism and the History of Science 100
  • 9 - Language, Discourse and Science 110
  • Notes 121
  • Further Reading 122
  • Section IC - Philosophical Problems 125
  • 10 - Continental Philosophy and the History of Science 127
  • Further Reading 146
  • 11 - Discovery 148
  • Further Reading 165
  • 12 - Rationality, Science and History 166
  • Notes 179
  • 13 - Realism 181
  • Part II - Selected Writings in the History of Science 197
  • Section Iia - Turning Points 199
  • 14 - The Copernican Revolution 201
  • 15 - The Scientific Revolution 217
  • Further Reading 242
  • 16 - Newton and Natural Philosophy 243
  • Further Reading 262
  • 17 - The Chemical Revolution 264
  • Further Reading 276
  • 18 - Laplacian Physics 278
  • Further Reading 293
  • 19 - Natural History, 1670–1802 295
  • Notes 312
  • 20 - The History of Geology, 1780–1840 314
  • 21 - Energy 326
  • Notes 340
  • 22 - Electromagnetic Theory in the Nineteenth Century 342
  • Notes 355
  • 23 - Cell Theory and Development 357
  • Notes 371
  • Further Reading 372
  • 24 - Origins and Species Before and After Darwin 374
  • Further Reading 394
  • 25 - Wilhelm Wundt and the Emergence of Experimental Psychology 396
  • Further Reading 408
  • 26 - Behaviourism 410
  • Further Reading 423
  • 27 - Freud and Psychoanalysis 425
  • Further Reading 440
  • 28 - The Theory of Relativity 442
  • 29 - Quantum Theory 458
  • Notes 477
  • 30 - Classical Economics and the Keynesian Revolution 479
  • 31 - From Physiology to Biochemistry 494
  • Further Reading 502
  • 32 - The Molecular Revolution in Biology 503
  • Notes 519
  • 33 - The Emergence of Genetics 521
  • Notes 535
  • 34 - Cybernetics and Information Technology 537
  • Notes 552
  • Section Iib - Topics and Interpretations 555
  • 35 - Aristotelian Science 557
  • Further Reading 566
  • 36 - The Heart and Blood from Vesalius to Harvey 568
  • Notes 581
  • 37 - Magic and Science in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries 583
  • Notes 594
  • Further Reading 595
  • 38 - Atomism and the Mechanical Philosophy 597
  • Notes 609
  • 39 - Newtonianism 610
  • Notes 625
  • 40 - Physical Optics 627
  • Notes 637
  • 41 - Cosmology: Newton to Einstein 639
  • 42 - Geometry and Space 651
  • Notes 659
  • 43 - Particle Science 661
  • 44 - The Foundations of Mathematics 677
  • Further Reading 688
  • 45 - Probability and Determinism, 1650–1900 690
  • Further Reading 700
  • 46 - The Mind–body Problem 702
  • Further Reading 710
  • 47 - Paradigmatic Traditions in the History of Anthropology 712
  • Notes 726
  • 48 - Physiology and Experimental Medicine 728
  • Notes 741
  • 49 - Geography 743
  • Notes 759
  • Section Iic - Themes 761
  • 50 - Science and Religion 763
  • Notes 782
  • 51 - Science and Literature 783
  • Further Reading 797
  • 52 - Science and Philosophy 799
  • 53 - The Development of Philosophy of Science 1600–1900 816
  • Notes 836
  • 54 - The Development of Philosophy of Science Since 1900 838
  • 55 - The Classification of the Sciences 853
  • Further Reading 868
  • 56 - Marginal Science 869
  • Notes 882
  • Further Reading 883
  • 57 - Science, Alienation and Oppression 886
  • Further Reading 896
  • 58 - Orthodoxies, Critiques and Alternatives 898
  • 59 - Nationalism and Internationalism 909
  • Notes 918
  • 60 - Science and Imperialism 920
  • Notes 931
  • 61 - Science and War 934
  • Notes 943
  • Further Reading 944
  • 62 - Science Education 946
  • Notes 958
  • 63 - The Organisation of Science and Its Pursuit in Early Modern Europe 960
  • Notes 975
  • Appendix 977
  • 64 - Professionalisation 980
  • 65 - Science and the Public 990
  • Notes 1006
  • 66 - Science and Political Ideology, 1790–1848 1008
  • Notes 1022
  • 67 - Natural Science and Social Theory 1024
  • Further Reading 1042
  • The Contributors 1044
  • Index of Names 1047
  • Index of Subjects 1060
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