Companion to the History of Modern Science

By R. C. Olby; G. N. Cantor et al. | Go to book overview

sociology of science may well, indeed, lead to a critical reappraisal of one of the basic constituents of scientific internationalism, that is, the universal nature of scientific knowledge itself. So far, reflections on the existence of specific national traits have been restricted to characteristics of research activities, such as scientific styles, theoretical versus empirical dispositions and research directions, as well as to mental aberrations such as the proclamation of 'Aryan' science. Now the 'constructivist' view of science endeavours to demonstrate that cultural and social factors, operating both within the research community and in interaction with the surrounding society, affect the content of science as well as its direction. 21 To the extent that the view of a culturally and socially determined content of scientific knowledge gains acceptance, the postulate of universality will be directly challenged.

The difficulty of reaching a consensus on nationalism and internationalism in science that would also include the practitioners of the scientific métier does not come from differences of problématique and approach alone. The difficulty is also rooted in the fact that the notions of 'nationalism' and 'internationalism' suffer from a high degree of imprecision; they are not, after all, ahistorical concepts.


NOTES
1
D. Crane, 'Transnational networks in basic science', International organisation, 25, 3 (1971), 585–601; see also Sociology of the scientific community (Section II/8).
2
P. Forman, 'Scientific internationalism and the Weimar physicists: the ideology and its manipulation in Germany after World War I', Isis, 64 (1973), 155; J.J. Salomon, 'The internationale of science', Science studies, I (1971), 23–42.
3
L. Graham, 'The formation of Soviet research institutes: a combination of revolutionary innovation and international borrowing', Social studies of science, 5 (1975), 303–29; H. Hawkins, 'Transatlantic discipleship: two American biologists and their German mentor', Isis, 71 (1980), 197–210.
4
See on Duhem's observations on national characteristics of science H. W. Paul, The sorcerer's apprentice. The French scientists' image of German science, 1840–1919 (Gainesville, 1972), pp. 54–76.
5
L. S. Woolf, International government. Two reports prepared for the Fabian Society Research Department (London, 1916), p. 317; G. Sarton, 'L'histoire des sciences et l'organisation internationale', Isis, 29 (1938), 311–25.
6
M. Foster, 'The international medical congress', Nature, 49 (1894), 563.
7
Koenigliche Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mathematisch-physikalische Klasse, Sitzungsberichte. Munich, 16 November 1901, vol. 31, p. 420.
8
P. Forman, Isis, 64 (1973), 153–6.
9
E. Crawford, J. L. Heilbron, 'The Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institute in Basic Science and the Nobel Institution', in Wissenschaft im Spannungsfeld von Politik und Gesellschaft. Festschrift zum 75 jährigen Bestehen der Max-Planck-gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften (Munich, 1989).
10
A. D. Beyerchen, Scientists under Hitler. Politics and the physics community in the Third Reich (New Haven, 1977).
11
D. Joravsky, The Lysenko affair (Chicago, 1985).
12
M. Gowing, Britain and atomic energy, 1939–1945 (London, 1964); R. G. Hewlett and O. E. Anderson, History of the US AEC. Vol 1: The new world, 1939–1946 (Philadelphia, 1962);

-918-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Companion to the History of Modern Science
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Preface xi
  • Introduction xiii
  • Part I - The Study of the History of Science 1
  • Section Ia - History of Science in Relation to Neighbouring Disciplines 3
  • 1 - The Development of the Historiography of Science 5
  • Notes 21
  • 2 - The History of Science and the Working Scientist 23
  • Further Reading 31
  • 3 - The History of Science and the History of Society 32
  • Notes 46
  • 4 - The History of Science and the Philosophy of Science 47
  • Notes 57
  • Bibliography and Further Reading 58
  • 5 - Sociological Theories of Scientific Knowledge 60
  • Notes 72
  • Further Reading 72
  • Section Ib - Analytical Perspectives 75
  • 6 - Marxism and the History of Science 77
  • Notes 85
  • 7 - The Sociology of the Scientific Community 87
  • Notes 98
  • 8 - Feminism and the History of Science 100
  • 9 - Language, Discourse and Science 110
  • Notes 121
  • Further Reading 122
  • Section IC - Philosophical Problems 125
  • 10 - Continental Philosophy and the History of Science 127
  • Further Reading 146
  • 11 - Discovery 148
  • Further Reading 165
  • 12 - Rationality, Science and History 166
  • Notes 179
  • 13 - Realism 181
  • Part II - Selected Writings in the History of Science 197
  • Section Iia - Turning Points 199
  • 14 - The Copernican Revolution 201
  • 15 - The Scientific Revolution 217
  • Further Reading 242
  • 16 - Newton and Natural Philosophy 243
  • Further Reading 262
  • 17 - The Chemical Revolution 264
  • Further Reading 276
  • 18 - Laplacian Physics 278
  • Further Reading 293
  • 19 - Natural History, 1670–1802 295
  • Notes 312
  • 20 - The History of Geology, 1780–1840 314
  • 21 - Energy 326
  • Notes 340
  • 22 - Electromagnetic Theory in the Nineteenth Century 342
  • Notes 355
  • 23 - Cell Theory and Development 357
  • Notes 371
  • Further Reading 372
  • 24 - Origins and Species Before and After Darwin 374
  • Further Reading 394
  • 25 - Wilhelm Wundt and the Emergence of Experimental Psychology 396
  • Further Reading 408
  • 26 - Behaviourism 410
  • Further Reading 423
  • 27 - Freud and Psychoanalysis 425
  • Further Reading 440
  • 28 - The Theory of Relativity 442
  • 29 - Quantum Theory 458
  • Notes 477
  • 30 - Classical Economics and the Keynesian Revolution 479
  • 31 - From Physiology to Biochemistry 494
  • Further Reading 502
  • 32 - The Molecular Revolution in Biology 503
  • Notes 519
  • 33 - The Emergence of Genetics 521
  • Notes 535
  • 34 - Cybernetics and Information Technology 537
  • Notes 552
  • Section Iib - Topics and Interpretations 555
  • 35 - Aristotelian Science 557
  • Further Reading 566
  • 36 - The Heart and Blood from Vesalius to Harvey 568
  • Notes 581
  • 37 - Magic and Science in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries 583
  • Notes 594
  • Further Reading 595
  • 38 - Atomism and the Mechanical Philosophy 597
  • Notes 609
  • 39 - Newtonianism 610
  • Notes 625
  • 40 - Physical Optics 627
  • Notes 637
  • 41 - Cosmology: Newton to Einstein 639
  • 42 - Geometry and Space 651
  • Notes 659
  • 43 - Particle Science 661
  • 44 - The Foundations of Mathematics 677
  • Further Reading 688
  • 45 - Probability and Determinism, 1650–1900 690
  • Further Reading 700
  • 46 - The Mind–body Problem 702
  • Further Reading 710
  • 47 - Paradigmatic Traditions in the History of Anthropology 712
  • Notes 726
  • 48 - Physiology and Experimental Medicine 728
  • Notes 741
  • 49 - Geography 743
  • Notes 759
  • Section Iic - Themes 761
  • 50 - Science and Religion 763
  • Notes 782
  • 51 - Science and Literature 783
  • Further Reading 797
  • 52 - Science and Philosophy 799
  • 53 - The Development of Philosophy of Science 1600–1900 816
  • Notes 836
  • 54 - The Development of Philosophy of Science Since 1900 838
  • 55 - The Classification of the Sciences 853
  • Further Reading 868
  • 56 - Marginal Science 869
  • Notes 882
  • Further Reading 883
  • 57 - Science, Alienation and Oppression 886
  • Further Reading 896
  • 58 - Orthodoxies, Critiques and Alternatives 898
  • 59 - Nationalism and Internationalism 909
  • Notes 918
  • 60 - Science and Imperialism 920
  • Notes 931
  • 61 - Science and War 934
  • Notes 943
  • Further Reading 944
  • 62 - Science Education 946
  • Notes 958
  • 63 - The Organisation of Science and Its Pursuit in Early Modern Europe 960
  • Notes 975
  • Appendix 977
  • 64 - Professionalisation 980
  • 65 - Science and the Public 990
  • Notes 1006
  • 66 - Science and Political Ideology, 1790–1848 1008
  • Notes 1022
  • 67 - Natural Science and Social Theory 1024
  • Further Reading 1042
  • The Contributors 1044
  • Index of Names 1047
  • Index of Subjects 1060
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 1084

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.