Nagasaki was the Japanese city where the second atomic bomb was detonated on August 9, 1945. The intended target for the second atomic bomb attack was Kokura, but heavy overcast caused the mission to be diverted to Nagasaki. A weather observation B-29 accompanied the B-29 carrying the plutonium bomb, Bock'sCar. At about 11:05 A.M. the atomic bomb detonated over Nagasaki. The total area reduced to ashes by blasts and fires was about 6.7 square kilometers. Although the bomb dropped on Nagasaki was more powerful than the one dropped on Hiroshima, differences in topography and distribution of buildings was such that there was less physical damage in Nagasaki. In addition, the bomb was off target by nearly two miles. This error also meant casualties were lower. In a reconstruction of the casualties as of December 31, 1945, the total was 73,884 killed, 74,909 injured, and 120,820 affected. In an updated report to the United Nations in the autumn of 1976, the estimation of total deaths from the blast and aftermath was 70,000 (plus or minus 10,000).
National Defense Research Committee
The National Defense Research Committee (NDRC) was the brainchild of Vannevar Bush, and its intent was to mobilize science for the war effort. Bush, former vice president of Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)