Revolutionary States, Leaders, and Foreign Relations: A Comparative Study of China, Cuba, and Iran

By R. K. Ramazani; Houman A. Sadri | Go to book overview

NOTES
1.
Throughout this chapter, I use the designations China, Red China, Revolutionary China, and the People's Republic of China interchangeably. I use the term Taiwan to refer to the Republic of China on the Island of Formosa.
2.
For example, see J. Richard Walsh, Change, Continuity and Commitment: China's Adaptive Foreign Policy, (Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 1988), especially p. 1.
3.
For a thoughtful account of Western selective perception of Chinese behavior, see Colin Mackerras, Western Images of China (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989).
4.
For a careful cultural and political analysis of the Chinese modernization process, see Suzanne Ogden, China's Unresolved Issues: Politics, Development, and Culture, 3d ed. (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1995), especially pp. 311-48.
5.
For a fresh and rare analysis of the Sino—American political clash from a contrasting cultural perspective, see Richard Madsen, China and the American Dream: A Moral Inquiry (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995).
6.
America's perception of Chinese affairs was also tainted prior to the establishment of Revolutionary China. For more information about the Cold War era and on prerevolutionary China, see Odd Arne Westad, Cold War and Revolution: Soviet-American Rivalry and the Origins of the Chinese Civil War, 1944-1946 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1993).
7.
See the publication of Mao's doctor, Li Zhisui, The Private Life of Chairman Mao: The Memoirs of Mao's Personal Physician Dr. Li Zhisui translated by Tai Hung-chao (New York: Random House, 1989).
8.
Mao Zedong, “On Contradiction, ” Selected Works of Mao Tse-Tung, vol. 1 (Peking: Foreign Languages Press, 1969), 313.
9.
John Gittings, The World and China, 1922-1972, (New York: Harper and Row, 1974), 37.
10.
Ibid., 43.
11.
Ibid., 38.
12.
Ibid., 39.
13.
Mao integrated the concept of united front” into Marxism in his major work on dialectics, “On Contradiction” (see Mao, Selected Works, vol. 1).
14.
For a full text of Mao's 30 June 1949 speech, see Selected Works of Mao Tse-tung, vol. 4, 415-17.
15.
For a detailed record of the concept of united front in China, see Lyman P. Van Slyke, Enemies and Friends: The United Front in Chinese Communist History (Stanford, Calif: Stanford University Press, 1967).
16.
It must be mentioned that China's definition of hegemony has changed over time. While it originally referred to military intervention, since 1982 it also began to include political interference. See Lillian C. Harris and Robert L. Worden, eds. China and the Third World: Champion or Challenger? (Dover, Mass.: Auburn House, 1986), 128.
17.
For example, one can find references to the enemy in Romance of the Three Kingdoms, vol. 2, translated by C.H. Brewitt-Taylor (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1925), 612-14.
18.
Lenin, one of the founders of the Communist Party of Soviet Union (CPSU), is most likely the modern originator of the united front strategy, although the term was not actually used in communist writings until the 1920s. V.I. Lenin, “What Is To Be Done, ” Collected

-58-

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Revolutionary States, Leaders, and Foreign Relations: A Comparative Study of China, Cuba, and Iran
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Foreword ix
  • Preface xi
  • Introduction 1
  • 1 - Typology and Terminology of Revolutions 9
  • 2 - Non-Alignment as a Foreign Policy Strategy 17
  • 3 - Chinese Foreign Relations, 1949-1959 35
  • Notes 58
  • 4 - Cuban Foreign Relations, 1959-1969 65
  • 5 - Iranian Foreign Relations, 1979-1989 87
  • 6 - Conclusion 115
  • Selected Bibliography 133
  • Index 141
  • About the Author 149
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