Like any human activity, transport and mobility services influence our environment. Road and railway infrastructures have shaped the scenery of our countries, and modern air transport has conquered the skies for human mobility,
The extent of modern mobility laid the basis for prosperity and wealth in industrialized countries but was achieved by high levels of local toxic emissions and additions to atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, which are held responsible for global climate change.
While modern exhaust after-treatment technologies and innovative combustion processes have dramatically reduced toxic emissions in the past decades, current vehicle fleets still pose problems in densely populated areas. With fossil fuel combustion, carbon dioxide emissions from passenger vehicles, buses, and trucks have reached levels that are considered problematic for stabilizing our climate and avoiding average ground temperature levels unprecedented in human history.
For analyzing vehicle emissions on a comparable basis, synthetic driving cycles have been set up in various countries. These driving cycles represent driving patterns and serve to determine vehicle consumption, air toxic emissions, and greenhouse gas emissions.
Critics argue that these defined driving cycles do not coincide with real driving behavior. Indeed, individual driving styles have a substantial influence on actual emission values. In the past, driving cycles have not included cold start