(1932-), an important scholar, teacher, and literary critic whose book-length study Chinua Achebe: Novelist,Poet, Critic was a crucial work in the growth of Achebe's critical reputation in the West. Born in Yorkshire, Carroll received his B.A. from Durham in 1953, his M.A. from the London University in 1957, and his Ph.D. from Durham in 1962. He has held a number of teaching posts at African, Canadian, and British universities. From 1957 to 1963, he taught at Fourah Bay College in Freetown, Sierra Leone; from 1963 to 1972, he taught at the University of Toronto; from 1972 to 1989, he taught at Lancaster University, where he also served a term as the head of the Department of English. He formally retired in 1989 but continued to work with the Lancaster Department of English until disabled by a serious stroke in 1998.
Carroll's study of Achebe and his writing was first published in 1970, then followed by expanded versions in 1980 and 1990, updated to reflect Achebe's ongoing literary production. In 1980, Carroll also published Chinua Achebe, Arrow of God: Notes. In addition to his important work on Achebe, Carroll has worked and published in a number of other areas. He was, for example, joint editor of the Longon Literature in English series, of which about thirty volumes were published. He is especially well known for his work as a scholar of George Eliot, in which role he published a book-length study, George Eliot and the Conflict of Interpretations (1992), while also compiling and editing George Eliot: The Critical Tradition (1971). He was also the editor of the much-respected 1986 Clarendon Press edition of Eliot's Middle-march.
M. Keith Booker
(Arthur Joyce Lunel Cary, 1888-1957), British novelist, born in Londonderry, Northern Ireland. After taking part in the Balkan War (1912-1913), Cary joined the British political service in colonial Nigeria in 1913. He subsequently served in the Nigeria Regiment during the Cameroons campaign of 1915-1916. After being wounded in the Cameroons, he served for a time in the civil capacity of district officer in colonial Nigeria.
Having returned to England to devote himself to writing, Cary's career as a novelist began in 1932 with the publication of Aissa