Although on-site inspection regimes are now used to verify an impressively broad, and steadily expanding, number of modem arms control agreements covering diverse weapons systems, the underlying structures of the on-site inspection regimes concluded since the mid-1980s have many similar basic features.
The template for such regimes was set by the 1987 INF Treaty (Intermediate-Range and Shorter-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty) which incorporated many elements from past agreements. As the last of the arms control treaties negotiated, signed, ratified, and partially implemented during the period of Cold War confrontation and competition, 1 the INF Treaty was the product of adversarial and protracted negotiations lasting just over six years. Although initially a bilateral U.S.-Soviet treaty, the United States closely coordinated its negotiating positions with its NATO allies, since the treaty involved military systems targeted on Europe, and its inspection regime would be implemented in the European INF basing countries as well as in the United States.
In addition, the INF Treaty's on-site inspection (OSI) provisions were negotiated in an atmosphere of mutual distrust. The Soviet Union was suspicious of reasons for the Reagan administration's military build-up and intentions, 2 which it saw as an effort to gain clear military superiority. The United States, on the other hand, was gripped by mounting concern—catalogued from 1984 on in annual reports to Congress—that the Soviet Union was systematically cheating on the legal and political arms control commitments it had made in the past. This concern was encapsulated in the new U.S. emphasis on “effective verification” with its insistence on tightly worded agreements containing tough on-site inspections regimes to supplement monitoring by national technical means (NTM). Indeed, even after the INF Treaty was signed, the United States continued its efforts to further clarify and strengthen the treaty's on-site inspection provisions and procedures. 3 The adversarial atmosphere in which the