During the 1960s a policy of involvement gradually succeeded the neutral and more prudent Swedish policy of the 1950s. The Greek coup d'etat of August 21, 1967, particularly incensed leading socialist circles and created a strong reaction. Efforts were made to cultivate the birth of a Greek resistance movement, partially directed by the dethroned Greek politican Professor Andreas Papandreou. He was invited to direct his fight against the Greek regime from Sweden. He cooperated with Anthony Brillakis, head of the Greek Communist party, to establish terrorist activities in Greece.
The new policy of involvement led the Swedish government to abandon its previous demands that refugees who had been given asylum in Sweden refrain from political activity there. 1 Instead, it was decided that foreigners could enjoy the same freedom as Swedes to engage in political activity. 2 Since they were not allowed to participate in the Swedish elections, the formula mainly operated to allow the Papandreou type of political activity. This change in attitude (hereinafter called the Papandreou policy) for the first time had the effect of attracting refugees from outside of the socialist camp. Sweden now turned into a haven for an ever-increasing number of people whose socialist views led to their persecution and repression by some dictatorship or other.
Under the new socialist leadership of the mid-1960s, Sweden entered into an era of virulently anti-American policy which dominated the subsequent period and at times reached such heights that the American ambassador was withdrawn. Part of this policy was due to the intense support for the socialist regime that took over in Chile in 1970 under President Allende. In the increasingly polarized Chilean society that developed after the take-over, the Swedish government sympathized more with those seeking to destroy the managerial and middle classes and to establish a dictatorship of the revolutionary left, than with the opponents of the regime. The Cuban regime took a similar attitude and concentrated on Chile after 1970, moving its headquarters for revolutionary activity from the Paris embassy to the new Cuban embassy in Santiago. 3 The Pinochet coup of September 11, 1973, was felt in Sweden to be an enormous setback.
Pressured by the leftist forces on which the position of the new Swedish leadership depended, the government allowed large numbers of Chilean