the return to society in order to impart the influx and abundance, would correspond to prophetic religiosity.
Closely related to this transformation of prayer is the study of the Torah. An eminently intellectual undertaking. Torah study also gave rise, through the ages, to deeper emotional and even ecstatic moments. In Hasidism there was a deepending of this emotional element, and in many cases the study of the very complex texts was conceived as a mystical path, and as a way, like prayer, to draw down the influx from above. In practice, this meant, again as in the case of prayer, an atomization of the studied text and a magical belief in the canonical text as a sacrosanct talisman.
Last but not least, one of the ideals of Jewish religion, the scholar, who studies the Torah and prays in a perfect way, was fused with the ideal of the mystical and magical Ẓaddiq. Like prayer and study, the Ẓaddiq, too, was conceived as efficacious when he was able to ensure the descent of the supernal influx. In other words, it is the concept of power, which means in this context the capacity to bring down the divine energy, that moves to the center of the mystical preoccupation in Hasidism.
These three transformations—which affected major issues in Judaism—are characteristic of and congenial to Hasidism, but they did not emerge with it. In all three cases important antecedents will be presented and analyzed, attempting to put these metamorphoses into a large perspective, namely, the broader history of Jewish mysticism; we are especially interested in the repercussions of the magical model through either the mediation of Cordoverian writings or other channels. In the following discussion an emphasis on the magical will become evident, especially in the chapter on prayer. This does not mean that the phenomenon of the Ẓaddiq, or the study of the Torah did not involve more mystical elements. This will become evident in Chapter five, as well as in the two appendices. However, I will not take up the issue of mystical prayer in Hasidism here, since it is an issue upon which those scholars who have studied it separately agree.