Prevention of Alcohol-related
A. James McKnightTransportation Research Associates, Annapolis, MD, USA
Robert B. VoasPacific Institute for Research and Evaluation, Calverton, MD, USA
Countermeasures to alcohol-related road crashes are considered within four categories: reducing alcohol consumption by reducing alcohol availability; separating drinking from driving; apprehending and removing the drinking driver from the road; and preventing the recurrence of drinking and driving among drink—driving offenders. This chapter is organized around those four elements of the impaired driving problem.
Traditional efforts to reduce drinking and driving have centered on the enforcement of impaired driving laws. Over the last two decades, however, the science of alcohol safety has expanded to include efforts to limit drinking as well as driving after drinking. This has occurred as research has demonstrated the effectiveness of making alcohol less available, particularly to youth, in reducing alcohol-related crashes. Efforts to reduce consumption have taken three forms: (a) limiting total consumption by regulating sales through prohibition of sales to minors in certain locations or jurisdictions and through the manipulation of price through excise taxes; (b) controlling the conditions of service (e.g. limiting “happy hours”); and (c) designing information campaigns to discourage heavy drinking.
It is possible for individuals to drink heavily and not be exposed to causing alcohol-related crashes if they do not have access to a vehicle. Programs to achieve this outcome include: public education efforts to persuade the drinkers themselves to take steps to avoid driving
The Essential Handbook of Treatment and Prevention of Alcohol Problems. Edited by N. Heather and T. Stockwell. © 2004 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. ISBN 0-470-86296-3.