Interpersonal Sensitivity: Theory and Measurement

By Judith A. Hall; Frank J. Bernieri | Go to book overview

APPENDIX

Descriptions of the Perceptual Cues Coded in Bernieri et al. (1996)
1. Adaptors refer to manipulations of one's own body such as rubbing, scratching, preening, and, in the present study, rhythmically swiveling the chair back and forth.
2. Expressivity was a rated dimension that referred to the extent to which an individual's total behavior was active, animated, and exaggerated. Raters were told, for example, that people who are expressive show their emotions quite readily, whereas those who are not expressive tend to have “poker faces” and move very little.
3. Mutual eye contact refers to the amount of time the interactants were gazing into each other's eyes.
4. Forward lean refers to the total time spent by the interactants maintaining a postural configuration in which their head was forward of the upright, vertical position relative to their hips.
5. Gestures refer to nonverbal acts that have direct verbal translations (e.g., the “OK” sign) or are used to illustrate or punctuate speech (e.g., pointing and fist pounding).
6. Mutual silence refers to the total time spent in which interactant were simultaneously silent for periods longer than 1.5 s.
7. Nervous behavior was a rated variable. Raters were told that nervous behavior referred to any action or activity that suggested someone is scared, anxious, uncomfortable, or nervous (e.g., fidgeting, shaking, knees knocking, quivering voice, swallowing, and “freezing”).
8. Orientation refers to the degree to which an individual's trunk was oriented directly toward his or her partner. This measure represents the average orientation of both interactants during the brief clip. Values for orientation increased as both interactants adopted a face-to-face orientation.
9. Proximity is a composite variable that represents the average distance separating the interactants' noses, chairs, and closest knees.
10. Racial similarity refers to the similarity of the racial composition of the interacting dyads. Although our sample contained African Americans, Asians, and Hispanics, racial match invariably meant that both interactants were Caucasian. Racial mismatch typically meant that one interactant was Caucasian and one was not. A dyad composed of one Hispanic and one Caucasian was coded as being more racially similar than a dyad that included a Caucasian and an African American or Asian.
11. Back-channel responses refer to head nods and “uh huhs.”
12. Smiling refers to the total time spent by both interactants smiling and laughing.

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