Enhancing Learning: A Matter of Style or Approach?
The University of Hong Kong
Today, as in the past, it appears that of all the branches of psychology, differential psychology—the study of individual and group behavioral differences—is the most germane to discussion of the problems of education.
—Jensen (1973, p. 1)
Twenty-five years later, Jensen's view is one that many today would still support, although the nature of the individual differences targeted would be different. Current interest is probably not now so much in powerful earthmovers like general intelligence or in more qualitatively differentiated creators of competence, such as multiple intelligences (Gardner, 1983) or emotional intelligence (Goleman, 1996). The debate between those Gardner mysteriously calls the “hedgehogs, ” who like Jensen believe in a single function designating mental power, and the “foxes, ” who like Gardner believe there are several independent ways in which people manifest their competence, is an old one. At the present time, the foxes might seem to be winning, the weight of the evidence suggesting that the full range of