workshops, but also whenever departments or course teams are reviewing their practice as part of normal course development or quality assurance procedures (van Driel, Verloop, Van Werven, & Dekkers, 1997).
The dilemma facing both educational developers and student advisers is how best to bring together experience and conceptual frameworks. Conceptions cannot be changed simply by presenting alternatives, and experience will not lead to change unless it is interpreted against a broader framework of understanding. Such is the paradox at the heart of this situation. Conceptual change seems to depend on engagement with experience in ways that promote reflection, and this is true for both staff and students. How to achieve this is, however, much less clear.
Atkinson, J. W., & Feather, N. T. (1966). A theory of achievement motivation. New York: Wiley.
Bennett, S. N., & Dunne, E. (in press). The acquisition and development of core skills in higher education and employment. Buckingham, England: Open University Press/SRHE.
Bereiter, C. (1990). Aspects of an educational learning theory. Review of Educational Research, 60, 603–624.
Biggs, J. B. (1987). Student approaches to learning and studying. Melbourne, Australia: Australian Council for Educational Research.
Biggs, J. B. (1993). What do inventories of students' learning processes really measure? A theoretical review and clarification. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 63, 3–19.
Biggs, J. B. (1999). Teaching for quality learning at university. Buckingham, England: Open University Press.
Boekaerts, M. (1999). Motivated learning: Studying student*situation transactional units. European Journal of the Psychology of Education, 14, 41–55.
Brockbank, A., & McGill, I. (1998). Facilitating reflective learning in higher education. Buckingham, England: Open University Press/SRHE.
Brown, G. A., & Atkins, M. (1988). Effective teaching in higher education. London: Methuen.
Brown, G. A., & Bahktar, M. (1983). Styles of lecturing. Loughborough, England: Loughborough University Press.
Cowan, J. (1998). On becoming an innovative university teacher. Buckingham, England: Open University Press/SRHE.
Edelman, G. (1992). Bright air, brilliant fire: On the matter of mind. London: Penguin Books.
Entwistle N. J. (1979). Stages, levels, styles or strategies: Dilemmas in the description of thinking. Educational Review, 31, 123–132.
Entwistle, N. J. (1988). Styles of learning and teaching. London: Fulton.
Entwistle, N. J. (1994, June). Generative concepts and pedagogical fertility: Communicating research findings on student learning. Presidential address to the European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction. EARLI News, 9–15.
Entwistle, N.J. (1995). Frameworks for understanding as experienced in essay writing and in preparing for examinations. Educational Psychologist, 30, 47–54.