Participation is not easily implemented. It is not a quick fix. But it can offer substantial organizational benefits. The new millennium will bring new challenges as well as new incentives for the implementation of worker participation. Buttressed by strong management support, congruent HR practices, computerized information systems designed to foster information sharing and communication, and policies encouraging long-term rather than contingent employment, worker participation may increase the performance and satisfaction of the skilled and diverse workforce of the twenty-first century.
Coch, L., & French, J.R.P., Jr. (1948). Overcoming resistance to change. Human Relations, 1 (4), 512–532.
Cotton, J. L., and others. (1988). Employee participation: Diverse forms and different outcomes. Academy of Management Journal, 13, 8–22.
Festinger, L. (1957). A theory of cognitive dissonance. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Hackman, J. R., & Oldham, G. R. (1975). Development of the job diagnostic survey. Journal of Applied Psychology, 60, 159–170.
Howard, A. (1995). The changing nature of work. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Ibarra, H. (1992). Homophily and differential returns: Sex differences in network structure and access in an advertising firm. Administrative Science Quarterly, 37, 422–447.
Ibarra, H. (1993). Personal networks of women and minorities in management: A conceptual framework. Academy of Management Review, 18, 56–87.
Kanter, R. M. (1977). Men and women of the corporation. New York: Basic Books.
Katz, D., & Kahn, R. L. (1978). The social psychology of organizations (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley.
Klein, J. A. (1984). Why supervisors resist employee involvement. Harvard Business Review, 84 (5), 87–95.
Kotter, J. P., & Schlesinger, L. A. (1979). Choosing strategies for change. Harvard Business Review, 57, 106–114.
Lawler, E. E., III, & Mohrman, S. A. (1991). Quality circles: After the honeymoon. In B. M. Staw (Ed.), Psychological dimensions of organizational behavior (pp. 523–533). Old Tappan, NJ: Macmillan.
Lawler, E. E., III, Mohrman, S. A., & Ledford, G. E. (1992). Employee involvement and Total Quality Management: Practices and results in Fortune 1000 companies. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.