Routledge Encyclopedia of Language Teaching and Learning

By Michael Byram | Go to book overview

The inspirational contributions of Eric Hawkins to education and language teaching have been recognised with the award of academic honours and, in 1973, of the CBE.


Bibliography

h
Hawkins, E.W (1981, revised edition 1987) Modern languages in the curriculum, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hawkins, E.W. (1984, revised edition 1987) Awareness of language-an introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hawkins, E.W. (ed.) (1996) Thirty years of language teaching, London: CILT.
Hawkins, E.W. (1999) Listening to Lorca-a journey into language, London: CILT.

Further reading

g
Green, P.S. (1985) 'Eric Hawkins', in P.S. Green (ed.), York Papers in Language Teaching-for Eric Hawkins, York: University of York Language Teaching Centre.

WALTER GRAUBERG

Heritage languages

Heritage language is a term that can be used to describe the language of an immigrant group or community when it differs from the official or dominant language(s). It is also a way of differentiating between the languages of indigenous (aboriginal) and non-indigenous minority languages. The use of this term can be found in countries such as CANADA and AUSTRALIA, where there are not only indigenous minorities with their own languages and cultures but many non-indigenous immigrant communities. It may be a preferable term to that of 'minority language', which may have negative connotations linked to low status and subordination to the dominant language.

The Canadian Heritage Languages Act, for example, positively defined heritage language as 'a language, other than one of the official languages of Canada, that contributes to the linguistic heritage of Canada' (languagestore: 1). An alternative term used is that of 'community language', which refers to a language used within a particular community, including languages spoken by ethnic minority groups.

In certain places where there are concentrations of immigrant communities, heritage languages may be found more frequently than the official languages. In some neighbourhoods in Toronto, for example, 'less than half of the people have ENGLISH as their first language' and instead are NATIVE SPEAKERS of CHINESE, Italian and PORTUGUESE, to name a few (languagestore: 1). This is not unusual in many large conurbations around the world which have attracted peoples from numerous countries and communities. Whilst it adds to the linguistic diversity and multiculturalism of a nation, there are also questions raised about how to retain heritage language use whilst at the same time encouraging the learning of the official or dominant language.

In the past, it may have been more the case that the official policy in many countries was to promote the official language, what can be termed monolingualism, at the cost of immigrants and their children losing touch with their own languages. Over a period of time this can lead to language shift to the dominant language, which then becomes the norm and 'takes over' from the immigrants' own MOTHER TONGUE. Indeed, one view is that heritage language use may have impeded the effective learning of the dominant language and hence the assimilation of immigrants into the new country.

It was often left to individual families or communities to provide special classes and courses of study in their own language for themselves and their children; for example, the Saturday morning classes in Cantonese for children of the Hong Kong community in London's Soho. A more extreme personal strategy would be to send children back to their home country for re-education in their own language. It was not often considered to be the duty of government, at national or local level, to provide such teaching. Gradually this position has changed in some countries.

A different approach has been taken by some governments in more recent times, however, which represents an attempt to foster BILINGUALISM by

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Routledge Encyclopedia of Language Teaching and Learning
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Illustrations vi
  • Editorial Team vii
  • Introduction xiii
  • Acknowledgements xvii
  • Thematic List of Entries xviii
  • A 1
  • B 73
  • C 90
  • D 169
  • E 188
  • F 217
  • G 228
  • H 254
  • Bibliography 259
  • I 288
  • J 316
  • L 325
  • M 394
  • N 436
  • O 452
  • P 458
  • Q 499
  • R 504
  • S 522
  • Bibliography 577
  • T 595
  • Bibliography 643
  • U 644
  • V 658
  • W 673
  • Index 679
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