Methods in Philosophy of Education

By Frieda Heyting; Dieter Lenzen et al. | Go to book overview

Notes
1
Over the past years I have explored the line of argument of this chapter in several different settings. I would like to express my gratitude to all who have been willing to discuss my explorations with me.
2
'Unser Zeitalter ist das eigentliche Zeitalter der Kritik, der sich alles unterwerfen muss. ' (Kant quoted in Röttgers 1990:892).
3
In a sense, we could say that Apel uses the middle option of the trilemma, the logical circle, to find his way out (cf. Sas 1995:506-511).
4
In Apel's own words: '(dieses) Kriterium…ist in der Lage, unbestreitbare Präsuppositionen der Argumentation als reflexiv-letztbegründete Sätze aufzuzeichnen: d.h., Sätze, die keiner Begründung aus etwas anderem bedürrfen, weil man sie nicht verstehen kann, ohne zu wissen dass sie wahr sind' (Apel 1987b: 185).
5
Apel's point, to put it briefly, is that one cannot deny the characteristics of the ideal community of communication without falling into a performative contradiction. For this very reason all argumentation - which, as Apel argues, can only have force within a specific community of communication - is bound to the characteristics of the ideal community of communication.
6
Precisely for this reason, deconstruction is not antifoundational or postmetaphysical - at least not in the straightforward sense of these words.
7
Although I present these ideas in the context of a discussion about language, they have a larger significance than the field of language alone. For a brilliant application of these ideas on issues concerning politics and political theory, see Honig 1993.
8
Strictly speaking, there is only one way to avoid this mistake, which is by acknowledging that the differences that constitute the play of difference 'are themselves effects' (Derrida 1982:11). This means, then, that in the 'most classical fashion', that is, in the language of metaphysics, we would have to speak of them as effects 'without a cause' (Derrida 1982:12).
9
Over the past years a whole body of literature on Derrida's rather idiosyncratic use of the idea of justice has been published. Besides Derrida 1992, see also Derrida 1999; Critchley 1999; Biesta 1998b.

References
Albert, H. (1985) Treatise on Critical Reason, Princeton:Princeton University Press.
Apel, K.O. (1973) Transformation der Philosophie. 2 Bde, Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.
--(1980) Towards a Transformation of Philosophy, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
--(1987a) 'The Problem of Philosophical Foundations in Light of a Transcendental Pragmatics of Language', in K. Baynes, J. Bohman and Th. McCarthy (eds), After Philosophy. End or Transformation?, Cambridge, MA. : MIT Press.
--(1987b) 'Falllibilismus, Konsenstheorie der Wahrheit und Letztbegündung', in Forum fürr Philosophie (eds), Philosophie und Begründung, Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.
Aristotle (1992) De Partibus Animalium I and De Generatione Animalium I, trans. with notes by D. M. Balme, Oxford :Clarendon Press.
Beekman, A. J. (1982) 'Theoretische pedagogiek; een existentieel-fenomenologische visie', in B. Spiecker, B. Levering and A. J. Beekman (eds), Theoretische Pedagogiek, Meppel/Amsterdam: Boom.

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