diverse, but none the less fundamental, anxieties-about the decline of the family and of organised religion, about the changing nature of literacy and contemporary culture, or, indeed, about the shortcomings of capitalism. How we might engage with these bigger issues is, of course, beyond my scope here. However, in the short term, there may be some benefit in attempting to address the violence issue on its own terms, rather than seeking merely to avoid it.
Newson (1994). I have discussed the debates surrounding the Bulger case at length in Buckingham (1996).
This is well documented, for example by Gans (1974), Ross (1989) and many others. It is also explored by Julian Petley in Chapter 10 of this book.
This work is reviewed by Young (1990).
For an excellent review of effects research in this area, see Durkin (1985).
For reviews of this work, see Bryant and Anderson (1983) and Dorr (1986).
See, for example, the studies in Brown (1976) and the extensive Swedish study by Rosengren and Windahl (1989).
See, for example, Hodge and Tripp (1986) and Buckingham (1993a).
For example, Palmer (1986) and the studies collected in Buckingham (1993b).
For a further discussion of these points, see Buckingham (1993a) and Liebes and Katz (1990).
For a recent example, see Geen (1994).
See Segal and McIntosh (1992).
The account which follows is based on Buckingham (1993a), Chapter 5, and Buckingham (1996), particularly Chapters 3 and 8. I am grateful to the Broadcasting Standards Council for funding the latter research, and to Mark Allerton for his assistance.
For example, Holman and Braithwaite (1982); Buckingham (1993a).
In 1987, Michael Ryan murdered sixteen people in the English town of Hungerford, having allegedly been inspired by the film Rambo-which it later transpired he had never seen. For an account of the debates surrounding the case, see Webster (1989).
See Buckingham (1996), Chapter 2.
The material here is based on Buckingham (1996).
Of all the popular hypotheses about the effects of television violence, this is the one that is least effectively supported by the available evidence: see Buckingham and Allerton (1996).
Brown, R. (1976), Children and Television, London: Collier Macmillan.
Bryant, J. and Anderson, D.R. (eds) (1983), Children's Understanding of Television, New York: Academic Press.
Buckingham, D. (1993a), Children Talking Television: The Making of Television Literacy, London: Falmer.
Buckingham, D. (ed.) (1993b), Reading Audiences: Young People and the Media, Manchester: Manchester University Press.