Fifty Modern Thinkers on Education: From Piaget to the Present Day

By Joy A. Palmer | Go to book overview

LEE S.SHULMAN 1938-

With Aristotle we declare that the ultimate test of understanding rests on one's ability to transform one's knowledge into teaching. Those who can, do. Those who understand, teach. 1

Research begins in wonder and curiosity but ends in teaching. 2

Lee S. Shulman has spent his professional life advocating for the importance of teaching at all levels, from kindergarten through graduate school. He is best known for his theoretical and empirical work on teacher cognition, for his work on the knowledge base of teaching, including the construct of 'pedagogical content knowledge', and for promoting the scholarship of teaching in higher education. After holding professorships at Michigan State University and Stanford University, he currently serves as President of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.

Lee Shulman was born and raised in Chicago, the only son of Jewish immigrants who owned a small delicatessen. Educated at a yeshiva high school (that mixed secular with sacred studies), Shulman won a scholarship to study at the University of Chicago.

Throughout his career, Shulman has never lost sight of the importance of subject matter in discussions of teaching. Shulman's interest in the teaching of subject matter and the entailments of different disciplines grew out of his undergraduate education in the College of the University of Chicago with a concentration in philosophy, and later as a doctoral student in Chicago's department of education under mentors Benjamin Bloom and Joseph Schwab. Shulman was particularly influenced by Schwab's notion of the structures of different disciplines-the concepts, traditions and tools that disciplines use to make claims, verify knowledge, and determine the quality of contributions. 3 A literary interpretation is not the same as a scientific proof; the concept of causality in biology is not identical to notions of causality in history. This early introduction to disciplinary difference has proved to be a consistent thread throughout Shulman's career.

Shulman's first academic job was at Michigan State University, where he joined the faculty of education. One of his earliest experiences as an assistant professor involved serving as the recorder for a conference on learning by discovery, a conference attended by luminaries such as David Hawkins, Lee J. Cronbach, Jerome Kagan, Jerome Bruner, among others. Shulman edited the book that emerged from this conference, and credits the experience with first raising his awareness of the wisdom of practice. 4

One of his best-known early contributions arose from his collaboration with a colleague in the medical school, and former college roommate, Arthur Elstein. In a widely cited study, Shulman and his colleagues studied the thinking of expert medical diagnosticians as they engaged in clinical diagnosis. 5 Two themes from this work were to resonate throughout Shulman's later work: (1) the focus on cognition under conditions of uncertainty in professional practice and, (2) the domain-specificity of expertise. Expert diagnosticians did not behave as psychologists predicted or as medical educators taught students to behave. Instead of gathering large amounts of data prior to making a hypothesis, the physicians formed

-257-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Fifty Modern Thinkers on Education: From Piaget to the Present Day
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Contents viii
  • Preface xiv
  • A.S.Neill 1883-1973 1
  • Notes 5
  • Notes 14
  • Notes 27
  • Further Reading 28
  • Notes 32
  • Notes 37
  • Notes 48
  • Carl Rogers 1902-87 49
  • Notes 53
  • Ralph Winifred Tyler 1902-94 54
  • Harry Broudy 1905-98 64
  • Notes 68
  • Further Reading 69
  • Benjamin S.Bloom 1913-99 86
  • Note 89
  • Further Reading 96
  • Notes 117
  • Further Reading 118
  • Notes 140
  • Notes 153
  • Michel Foucault 1926-84 170
  • Donaldson's Major Writings 181
  • Illich's Major Writings 188
  • Further Reading 193
  • Notes 203
  • Nel Noddings 1929- 210
  • Noddings' Major Writings 215
  • Notes 222
  • Notes 228
  • Notes 233
  • Theodore R.Sizer 1932- 241
  • Elliot Eisner 1933- 247
  • Notes 251
  • Lee S.Shulman 1938- 257
  • Notes 270
  • Henry Giroux 1943- 280
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 303

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.