Although this book's notes occasionally employ non-English-language texts, the works cited below are limited to the English language. My decision to do so does not disavow the richness of French, German, Italian, or especially Turkish literature. The selection rather is based upon the question of audience and constitutes a suggestion that the exclusion of the Ottoman Empire from European history is as much ideological as linguistic or because of a lack of accessible materials. The exhaustive body of English-language texts enables the interested historian to incorporate this empire fully into the Greater European World.
The most important reference work for Ottoman terms remains The encyclopaedia of Islam, new edn (Leiden, 1960–), which is now available in an excellent CD-Rom edition. Entries that the reader may find particularly useful include “ghulām, ” “Imtiyāzāt, ” “Istanbul, ” and “Maktuc.” There are several English-language surveys of early modern Ottoman history. The most thorough and reliable remains Halil Inalcιk, The Ottoman Empire: the classical age, 1300–1600, trans. Norman Itzkowitz and Colin Imber (London, 1973). Abriefer introduction that covers much the same ground is Norman Itzkowitz, Ottoman Empire and Islamic tradition (Chicago, 1972). Justin McCarthy also offers a readable survey that perhaps over-stresses the Turkishness of the Ottomans in The Ottoman Turks: an introductory history to 1923 (Harlow, Essex, 1997). Its lack of notes and bibliography also limits its value. The advanced student might profitably consult the exhaustive state-of-the-profession survey by Halil Inalcιk with Donald Quataert, An economic and social historyof the Ottoman Empire, 1300–1914 (Cambridge, 1994). Suraiya Faroqhi presents a fascinating look at Ottoman society and its material bases in Subjects of the sultan: culture and dailylife in the Ottoman Empire (London, 2000). Atext that, while focusing on the late empire