Modern Insurgencies and Counter-Insurgencies: Guerrillas and Their Opponents since 1750

By Ian F. W. Beckett | Go to book overview

6

'WARS OF NATIONAL LIBERATION'?

While the challenge of communist ideology had been overcome in Malaya and the Philippines, it remained a potent threat to Western interests amid the escalation of the Cold War. Indeed, as suggested by the announcement in January 1961 by Khrushchev of the Soviet Union's support for 'wars of national liberation', the link between communism, anti-colonial nationalism and insurgency was more than coincidental. In facing this challenge, the lessons learned in Malaya were crucial to the evolving pattern of British counter-insurgency, being applied both during the Mau Mau emergency in Kenya between 1952 and 1960 and in the Confrontation between Malaysia and Indonesia between 1962 and 1966. Moreover, the Malayan influence was also clear in the European response to other African insurgencies, such as that confronted by white Rhodesia between 1966 and 1979 and those in Portugal's African colonies between 1961 and 1974. To a certain extent, it was also evident in the South African campaigns in South West Africa (Namibia) between 1966 and 1984.

It should be noted, however, that while the British were successful in both Kenya and Borneo, some of the lessons of Malaya were misused, while others required adaptation to different circumstances. The same was true of Rhodesia and Portuguese Africa, at least in terms of the failure to reproduce those elements in Malaya that had made resettlement work. The Rhodesian and Portuguese experiences also proved that even comparative success in counter-insurgency meant little when events were determined by external political pressures.

The prime cause of Mau Mau was pressure of population and, indeed, Mau Mau frequently called itself ithaka na wiathi (Freedom through Land), usually characterised as the Kenya Land Freedom Army. The greatest pressure was in the so-called White Highlands, where 3,000 white settler farmers controlled 16,196 square miles, or an average of 3,460 acres each, while over 1.3 million Africans on native land units of 52,141 square miles possessed an average of only 23.6 acres each. Most African agriculture was barely at the subsistence level. Those who were employed as labour by the white farms and variously known as resident labourers or squatters worked in a kind of quasi-feudal

-121-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Modern Insurgencies and Counter-Insurgencies: Guerrillas and Their Opponents since 1750
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Introduction vii
  • 1 - The Roots of Insurgency 1
  • 2 - The Roots of Counter-Insurgency 24
  • 3 - Resistance and the Partisan 55
  • 4 - Mao Tse-Tung and Revolutionary Warfare 70
  • Further Reading 85
  • 5 - Formative Experiences 86
  • Further Reading 118
  • 6 - 'Wars of National Liberation'? 121
  • Further Reading 148
  • 7 - The Transition to Urban Insurgency 151
  • 8 - Insurgency and the Superpowers 183
  • 9 - Forward to the Past 217
  • Index 253
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 268

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.