The Politics of Revenge: Fascism and the Military in Twentieth-Century Spain

By Paul Preston | Go to book overview

3

Franco and the Axis temptation

As an openly declared enemy of liberal democracy and Bolshevism Franco could not conceal his sympathies when Hitler unleashed his war to exterminate both. In the last resort, however, the Caudillo's natural inclinations in foreign policy were restrained by two overriding considerations: his own domestic survival and Spain's economic and military capacity for war. In both of those areas he was obliged to pay considerable heed to the views of the army high command. The army was the most powerful player within the complex game of power rivalries between the component groups of the recently victorious Nationalist coalition. 1 At the beginning of the Second World War military conviction of an inevitable German victory was virtually unanimous. However, the likelihood of Spanish generals acting on the basis of that conviction was diminished both by their awareness of Spain's shattered economic and military capacity and by their monarchist sympathies. From the autumn of 1940 onwards the generals showed increasing scepticism about the ultimate Axis triumph. The Falange was a different matter. In its ranks could be found an unrestrained sympathy for German military exploits which was to remain undiminished until the last days of the war. Ideological affinities with the Third Reich immeasurably strengthened the Falange in the internal power struggle within Spain. The military and the Falange were the two major influences on Franco in the making of his foreign policy during the Second World War. Aristocratic royalists and middle-class Catholics were more ambiguous in their views, at first grateful for German assistance in the Civil War and envious of the Third Reich's success but increasingly suspicious of its religious policies and fervent anti-monarchism.

The views of all the Nationalist groups, with the exception of the most hard-line Falangists, inevitably evolved in relation to the shifting fortunes of war. Franco, always sensitive to the moods of his most powerful supporters, similarly adapted his responses to changing wartime developments. However, at the beginning of the Second World War,

1 On the military in this period, see Chapter 4, 'Franco and his generals 1939-45'.

-51-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Politics of Revenge: Fascism and the Military in Twentieth-Century Spain
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 215

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.