NOTE TO THE READER

All quotations from Greek and Latin have been translated into English by me, unless otherwise stated, and ancient titles have been given in English throughout. Ancient names have been generally given in their most familiar form, without any attempt at total consistency between a Greek and a Latinate spelling. I have often indicated also the modern name or general location of an ancient place. The exact dates of many ancient writers are rarely known, and only approximations are often possible. I have tried to be consistent in indicating all dates BC, but I have added AD only to dates where there might be confusion in the mind of the reader, especially in chapters that crossed the boundaries between the Hellenistic and Roman worlds.

Two features in the notes should be mentioned here. Square brackets around the name of an author, e.g. [Aristotle], indicate that the work cannot be attributed with any degree of certainty (and usually with none) to that author. Hence, for reasons made clear in the text, I refer to writings in the Hippocratic Corpus always as by [Hippocrates].

Second, the two main blocks of ancient medical material are cited in two different ways. All references to Hippocratic texts are with an English title, their book and chapter heading, and the volume and page number in the standard edition of Emile Littré (Paris: Baillière, 1839-61). By contrast, in order to save space, I have cited Galen mainly by the volume and page number in the standard edition of K. G. Kühn (Leipzig: K. H. Knobloch, 1821-33), adding, where possible, the page number of an accessible English version. Where necessary, I have occasionally referred also to an improved text in a more recent edition, usually in the CMG series. Texts not in Kühn have been cited by title, section and page in the relevant modern edition.

I have generally used standard editions of other ancient texts, indicating where necessary the name of the editor. I have not provided full bibliographical references to papyri, usually indicated by P., and to inscriptions, e.g. I. Ephesos or Griechische Versinschriften. Those with Greek or Latin who wish to check these documents in their originally published form should consult the list of abbreviations in H. G. Liddell, R. Scott and H. S. Jones (1968) A Greek-English

-ix-

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Ancient Medicine
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Illustrations vii
  • Note to the Reader ix
  • Acknowledgments xi
  • Abbreviations xiii
  • 1 - Sources and Scope 1
  • 2 - Patterns of Disease 19
  • 3 - Before Hippocrates 37
  • 4 - Hippocrates, the Hippocratic Corpus and the Defining of Medicine 53
  • 5 - Hippocratic Theories 72
  • 6 - Hippocratic Practices 87
  • 7 - Religion and Medicine in Fifth- and Fourth-Century Greece 103
  • 8 - From Plato to Praxagoras 115
  • 9 - Alexandria, Anatomy and Experimentation 128
  • 10 - Hellenistic Medicine 140
  • 11 - Rome and the Transplantation of Greek Medicine 157
  • 12 - The Consequences of Empire: Pharmacology, Surgery and the Roman Army 171
  • 13 - The Rise of Methodism 187
  • 14 - Humoral Alternatives 202
  • 15 - The Life and Career of Galen 216
  • 16 - Galenic Medicine 230
  • 17 - All Sorts and Conditions of (Mainly) Men 248
  • 18 - Medicine and the Religions of the Roman Empire 273
  • 19 - Medicine in the Later Roman Empire 292
  • 20 - Conclusion 310
  • Notes 317
  • Bibliography 419
  • Index of Names 465
  • Index of Topics 478
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