ALISON BRYSK AND GERSHON SHAFIR
Citizenship is a mechanism for allocating rights and claims through political membership. In the past two centuries or so, citizenship has been nested in nation-states. Globalization is a package of transnational flows-of people, production, investment, information, ideas, and authority. As exchange intensifies across borders, such globalization changes the nature of citizenship. Globalization has put some flows out of the reach of states, putting rights at risk, but also created new levels of membership and rights claims. Among the changes it has wrought, globalization coincides with a universal, deterritorialized, and postnational human rights regime.
We critically analyze the interaction of two traditions of rights: citizenship and human rights. While citizenship has come to signify full membership in the polity on the basis of broad claims and entitlements, human rights are more universal in coverage but encompass a more modest set of rights and are institutionally less settled. This book will consider how globalization has created a "citizenship gap" (Brysk 2002), which puts noncitizens and "second-class citizens" at risk. We will discuss the key concepts of citizenship, human rights, and globalization, the nature of the citizenship gap, and our approach to analyzing-and reducing or closing-the gap.
In an era of globalization, how do these traditions affect the provision of rights in response to global migration, markets, and transnational ties? How do these flows affect the state-the site of citizenship-in its ability to sustain existing citizenship rights and provide new forms of membership? How does globalization affect those most marginalized by the state-second-class citizens-and how does it impact noncitizens who fall between the cracks of a state-based membership system? This book is an attempt to address those questions. Finally, we will ask what steps would be necessary to provide citizenship on a global scale?
Though we identify citizenship with the nation-state, its origins are ancient. They lay in the Greek polis as privileged participatory membership in the polity. In between the polis and the modern national state, citizenship has been transformed and overlaid with new content through its association with