The essential argument of this chapter is that the rise of transnational economic forces during the 1990s exerted a major influence on the understanding and practice of citizenship that marks itself off from the preceding period of statism, as well as the emergent subsequent period of global warfare directed at overcoming the challenges of megaterrorism traumatically posed on September 11, 2001. In the pre-1990s period the Westphalian model of world order based on a society of states prevailed to such an extent as to associate citizenship, as a meaningful dimension of political participation, quite totalistically with full membership in a particular sovereign state (Bull 1977; Jackson 2000). The state, with the reinforcing support of international law, deliberately subordinated the idea and practice of nationality to statehood, thereby attempting to coopt divergent nationalist loyalties of its inhabitants. This effort was not consistently successful. As a result, periodic attempts were made by dissatisfied minorities to reconfigure the boundaries of states or to establish zones of autonomy within existing boundaries. The rise of "nationalism" as the basis for community was itself a major dimension of the secularizing process that accompanied the rise of statism from the seventeenth century onward, and was complementary to the determined effort to exclude religious influence from the public sphere of governance. But it was always an ambiguous reality, conflating juridical ideas of membership and affiliation with a more spontaneous politics associated with identity and desire.
But there were all along important sources of popular resistance to this dominant statist trend arising from marginalized and dissatisfied ethnic identities and as a result of antisecular refusals to supersede religious solidarity or to accept a rigid separation of church from state. Captive "nations" remained trapped within state boundaries, giving rise to autonomy and secessionist movements designed to achieve a maximal overlap of personal and group solidarity, nations, and states in fully legitimate political units, what were sometimes privileged as "natural political communities." Also, especially during the colonial period, citizens of colonial powers were given varying degrees of extraterritorial exemption from and protection of their special status when