ALISON BRYSK AND GERSHON SHAFIR
Human rights have made great strides in the centuries since the French Revolution, but to be truly effective in a globalizing era, the "rights of man and the citizen" will need to become the "universal rights of [hu]mans as global citizens." How can we transform rights into a new form of global citizenship-namely, membership in one or more political communities with institutions for participation, distribution, and enforcement? Overall, our analyses suggest that globalization of migration, production, regulation, and conflict construct rights without sufficient institutions to enforce them, identities without membership, and participation for some at the expense of others.
Existing institutions are insufficient in scope, powers, membership, and participation. A key problem for rights is accountability. Global processes have blurred accountability of new or transformed political actors-although many states failed their citizens, theoretical mechanisms such as voting, strikes, and courts did propose state accountability to citizens. States are not accountable to the UN High Commission on Refugees, and no one elects multinational corporations. Furthermore, noncitizens and second-class citizens have little access to whatever levers of accountability do exist. Who does the migrant maid call when she is assaulted or exploited?
Beyond a general deficit in governance and accountability, particular types of states face specific governance challenges. Historically, different types of states have provided distinct legal regimes and practical packages of citizenship rights. Now, different types of states have experienced systematically distinct patterns of globalization (Brysk 2002).
In collapsing or "failed" states-such as in large sectors of Africa and sporadic zones of intense civil conflict-weak citizenship combines with relative isolation from world markets alongside intense interstate and transnational penetration. These states contain large numbers of noncitizen refugees and widespread second-class citizenship, but globalization often offers better prospects for rights than the thin and predatory state does. However, these zones are also the major source of violent reactionary responses to globalization and coercive attempts to build alternative membership through terrorism and denial of rights to others (Falk in this volume).